Man-made fibre , fibre whose chemical composition , structure, and properties are significantly modified during the manufacturing process. Man-made fibres are spun and woven into a huge number of consumer and industrial products, including garments such as shirts, scarves, and hosiery; home furnishings such as upholstery, carpets, and drapes; and industrial parts such as tire cord, flame-proof linings, and drive belts. The chemical compounds from which man-made fibres are produced are known as polymers , a class of compounds characterized by long, chainlike molecules of great size and molecular weight. Many of the polymers that constitute man-made fibres are the same as or similar to compounds that make up plastics, rubbers, adhesives, and surface coatings. Indeed, polymers such as regenerated cellulose, polycaprolactam, and polyethylene terephthalate , which have become familiar household materials under the trade names rayon, nylon , and Dacron trademark , respectively, are also made into numerous nonfibre products, ranging from cellophane envelope windows to clear plastic soft-drink bottles.
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Eco-fibers in the Textile IndustryVIDEO ON THE TOPIC: How Cotton is Processed in Factories - How It’s Made
Eman is a writer and textile engineer. She obtained her bachelor's degree in textile sciences from the Faculty of Applied Arts. Synthetic fibers are man-made fibers. Most of the synthetic fibers are made from polymers produced by polymerization. Synthetic fibers are manufactured usually from oil, coal or natural gas. The polymer is a chemical substance consisting of large molecules made from many smaller molecules: some polymers, such as nylon, are artificial.
Proteins and DNA are natural polymers. Sometimes cellulose the main component of cotton fiber and pulp of wood are used to make materials such as acetate and rayon artificial silk. Synthetic fabrics are the most prevalent in the world. India is the second largest producer of synthetic fiber, but only 7. Within the European Union, Germany and Italy are among the largest importers. There are many other importing countries such as the Middle East and African countries.
Although synthetic fibers are the most common and attractive, on the other hand, they are the most common fiber that causes diseases. Also, Swedish Chemicals Agency Kemikalieinspektionen has shown the risks of chemicals used in synthetic fabrics, especially in the finishing process and dyeing on humans and the environment.
Around , a French engineer Hilaire de Chardonnet invented the artificial silk which called Chardonnet silk. In early , the English inventor Josef Swan invented artificial fibers were drawn from cellulose liquid, formed by chemical modification, this fiber currently called semi-synthetic.
The synthetic fibers produced by this process were chemically identical in their potential applications to Swan's carbon filament developed for his incandescent light bulb. Then Swan realized the fiber's ability to revolutionize the textile industry. In the name Rayon was adopted with the use of viscose in the viscous organic liquid used in the manufacture of rayon.
By the English chemist Charles Cross and his collaborators Edward Bevan and Clayton Beadle invented the viscose fiber which named by this name because of the highly viscous solution of xanthate produced from the reaction of carbon disulfide and cellulose in basic conditions.
In the s Wallace Carothers, an American researcher at the chemical firm DuPont developed nylon, the first synthetic fiber in the fully synthetic. They produced the first polyester fiber known as the Dacron. Lycra is stronger than natural rubber and used in the medical industries. Kevlar is heat-resistant and used in bulletproof vests. Synthetic fibers can be manufactured in continuous filaments, which are infinite in length.
A yarn can be made by assembling the filaments together continuously while producing threads. There are two types of polymerization: Condensation polymers are formed by the gradual reaction of functional groups of monomers, usually containing heterogeneous substances such as oxygen or nitrogen.
An addition polymer is a mechanism in which monomers react to form a polymer without forming by-products. Addition polymerization processes are performed in the presence of catalysts. Both units will lead to high-pressure drops along the flow direction of viscous liquids. There are two main devices used to pump liquids: centrifugal pumps and gear pumps.
Centrifugal pumps are used to transport low viscosity liquids around in a process while gear pumps are used to pump highly viscous liquids at the controlled flow rate. The filtration process must be completed to very strict standards. A plate may contain 1, or more holes.
The filament thickness is not determined in linear dimensions but in terms of mass per length. There are three methods of spinning:. During the drawing process, the polymer chains slide over each other as they are pulled to align along the longitudinal axis of the fibers. The dyes can be added to the molten solution before spinning the fibers. Fiber is usually dyed after spinning by pigments dissolved in boiling water baths.
Synthetic fibers have a very coherent and intertwined structure because the molecular chains are regular and have a high degree of crystallization. The dye molecules settle in the spaces between the molecular chains.
Depending on the nature of the synthetic fiber material, space varies in size from one type to another and notes that all synthetic fibers consist of materials that are not water-loving. Therefore, the dyeing rate depends on the internal structure of the fibers. We find that the dyeing rate is low in the case of synthetic fibers compared to other natural fibers so the time of dyeing is longer. To overcome this, auxiliary materials are added to the dye bath to help penetrate the fibers.
Also increasing the temperature and pressure of some dyes increases the dyeing rate. For example, when dyeing polyester, a benzophenone organic compound is used to transfer or carry dyes into fibers under pressure.
The carrier is used in a quantity of 0. The popular dyes of synthetic fibers:. Synthetic fibers such as Polyester used in making coats, jackets, and ropes. Rayon used in bed sheets and carpets. Nylon is used in making seatbelts, ropes, and fishing nets. Spandex used in sportswear, belts bra straps, swimwear, shorts, gloves, skinny jeans, socks, underwear, and home furnishings such as microbead pillows. Textile dermatitis is a skin reaction usually characterized by inflammation, redness, and itching in the skin after direct contact with synthetic fibers.
There are two types of textile dermatitis: allergic and irritant. The allergic textile stimulates the immune system to a strange substance that penetrates the skin. The development of the allergic reaction occurs in two stages, the sensitization stage when the immune system recognizes the substance and mobilizes the response and the stage of induction when the immune system causes an allergic reaction which means the symptoms of allergic fiber dermatitis develop over time and not when the first contact with allergens.
Irritant textile dermatitis occurs due to a substance that causes direct skin irritation and can occur when the first exposure of a substance. Epidemiological studies of textile dermatitis have indicated a significant number of patients with textile allergic.
Textile dermatitis occurs mostly among consumers as upper body lesions, caused by wearing tight clothing from synthetic fibers. However, occupational exposure may also be a problem, especially hand lesions of wearing work gloves. Polyester fibers are manufactured from both dihydric alcohol and terephthalic acid. Both are highly toxic and are not completely removed after the manufacturing process, resulting in easy access to the body through the wet skin, causing dermatitis in addition to respiratory infections.
Rayon is made from recycled wood pulp processed by carbon disulfide, sulfuric acid, ammonia, acetone, and caustic soda to withstand regular washing. Carbon dioxide emitted from Rayon's filaments can cause a headache, nausea, muscle pain and insomnia.
According to the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention , acrylonitrile enters our bodies through the skin by wearing garments made from acrylic fabric.
Acrylonitrile is toxic in low doses. It is classified as a Category 2B carcinogen possibly carcinogenic by the International Agency for Research on Cancer. Acrylic is one of the causes of breast cancer in women. If the process of manufacturing acrylic is not carefully monitored it can lead to the explosion. Acrylic fibers are highly flammable. Nylon relies on petroleum and receives many chemical treatments using caustic soda, sulfuric acid, and formaldehyde during manufacturing as well as bleaching and softening factors such as chloroform, pentane, limonene, and terpineol.
Even after the manufacturing process, the fiber still retains toxins that can be harmful. Diseases associated with repeated wear of nylon clothes: allergy skin, dizziness, headache, spinal pain. Spandex is manufactured by polyurethane dissolved in a dimethylformamide, dimethylacetamide or dimethyl sulfoxide.
These strong chemicals make spandex wear for a long time cause skin allergies, impetigo, and folliculitis. A large European multi-center study found that 3. This suggests that commercial textile dyes may contain allergens that are not known to be identified.
There are reports of epidemiological studies also reported that patients with textile dermatitis due to some reactive dyes, basic dyes, and acid dyes. Cancer has been mainly linked to exposure to cancerous aryl amines which can be formed as a product of the division of azo dyes. During the finishing process of textiles to improve the texture and quality of the fabric, many finishing resins release formaldehyde which can be emitted from the fabric and cause dermatitis.
Many EU countries have national regulations on formaldehyde in textiles in order to reduce risks to human health. However, there are some reports indicating that there are still concerns about the release of formaldehyde fabric finishing resins.
Epidemiological studies show that 2. Synthetic fibers produced from petroleum such as polyester and nylon pose a significant risk to the environment because they are non-biodegradable. Nylon production emits nitrous oxide, which is very dangerous to the ozone layer times more than carbon dioxide.
A study at the University of Plymouth in the UK analyzed what happened when a number of synthetic fabrics were washed at different temperatures in household washers, using different combinations of detergents, to determine the amount of microfibers shed. The researchers found that an average wash load of 6 kg could release an estimated , microfibers of polyester blended with cotton, , fibers of polyester and , of acrylics.
In that case, one of the considerations guiding policy intervention was the lack of clear societal benefit from incorporating microplastic particles into the cosmetics, coupled with concerns about environmental impacts. The societal benefits of textiles are without question and so any voluntary or policy intervention should be directed toward reducing emissions either via changes in textile design or filtration of effluent, or both.
In the next video, Bryan Clement, director of the Hippocrates Institute in West Palm Beach, Florida, discusses the dangers of chemicals in synthetic fabrics. After knowing the chemicals that used in the synthetic fibers from the beginning of manufacturing until the final processes and the great risk caused to humans and the environment, we should avoid these fibers as much as we can.
I think the solution to reduce the production of chemical fibers is to return to nature and revive the production of natural fibers.
On the other hand, consumers should try as much as possible to buy natural fibers such as cotton, linen, natural wool and other natural fabrics instead of synthetic fabrics. Synthetic fibers such as Polyester is used in making ropes, jackets, raincoats, and nets. Nylon is used in ropes, parachutes, and fishing nets. Also, used in making seat belts, sleeping bags, socks, ropes, etc Sometimes Rayon is mixed with wool to make carpet and mixed with cotton to make bedsheets Sign in or sign up and post using a HubPages Network account.
Cellulose is a carbohydrate and the chief component in the walls of plants. Rayon is the oldest manufactured fiber, having been in production since the s in France, where it was originally developed as a cheap alternative to silk. Most rayon production begins with wood pulp, though any plant material with long molecular chains is suitable. There are several chemical and manufacturing techniques to make rayon, but the most common method is known as the viscose process. This substance gives its name to the manufacturing process, called the viscose process.
The textile process
Polymer that is to be converted into fibre must first be converted to a liquid or semiliquid state, either by being dissolved in a solvent or by being heated until molten. This process frees the long molecules from close association with one another, allowing them to move independently. The resulting liquid is extruded through small holes in a device known as a spinnerette , emerging as fine jets of liquid that harden to form solid rods with all the superficial characteristics of a very long fibre, or filament. This extrusion of liquid fibre-forming polymer, followed by hardening to form filaments, is called spinning a term that is actually more properly used in connection with textile manufacturing. Several spinning techniques are used in the production of man-made fibre, including solution spinning wet or dry , melt spinning, gel spinning a variant on solution spinning , and emulsion spinning another variation of solution spinning. One of the oldest methods for the preparation of man-made fibres is solution spinning, which was introduced industrially at the end of the 19th century.
How is fabric created?
Additional Information. Show source. Show sources information Show publisher information. This statistic was assembled from several IVC chemical fiber industry updates. Chemical Industry. This feature is limited to our corporate solutions. Please contact us to get started with full access to dossiers, forecasts, studies and international data.
Eman is a writer and textile engineer. She obtained her bachelor's degree in textile sciences from the Faculty of Applied Arts. Synthetic fibers are man-made fibers. Most of the synthetic fibers are made from polymers produced by polymerization. Synthetic fibers are manufactured usually from oil, coal or natural gas. The polymer is a chemical substance consisting of large molecules made from many smaller molecules: some polymers, such as nylon, are artificial. Proteins and DNA are natural polymers. Sometimes cellulose the main component of cotton fiber and pulp of wood are used to make materials such as acetate and rayon artificial silk. Synthetic fabrics are the most prevalent in the world.
Textile and Fibers
Synthetic fibers British English: synthetic fibres are fibers made by humans through chemical synthesis , as opposed to natural fibers that are directly derived from living organisms. They are the result of extensive research by scientists to improve upon naturally occurring animal and plant fibers. In general, synthetic fibers are created by extruding fiber-forming materials through spinnerets , forming a fiber. These are called synthetic or artificial fibers.
But have you ever thought about what your clothes are made of? Most of the time good qualities in clothing are associated with brands and high expenses; consumers will automatically gravitate towards familiar stores that are well-known for their quality, pricing, style etc. It goes without thinking about where in the world the garment was made, or which type of fabric was used; natural or synthetic? We never really bother to research the reason our favourite clothes are just that, our favourites. Natural fabrics—such as cotton, silk and wool—are made of animal or plant-based fibres, while synthetics are man-made and produced entirely from chemicals to create fabrics like polyester, rayon, acrylic, and many others. Over the years these synthetic fibres have increasingly grown in popularity. The demand for polyester fibres have increased by over half since , making polyester the single most used textile—overtaking cotton. Although synthetic fibres are known for better durability and cheaper manufacturing, they are acquired from petroleum products and require a complex processing procedure, like all synthetic fabrics. But natural fibres are found naturally on our planet without being scientifically invented. Knowing this, there have been many long debates between the benefits of synthetic vs.
Fiber Selection for the Production of Nonwovens
Ramie fibre comes under bast fibre category, which can be classified as underutilised fibres. The high potential of ramie fibre is not fully exploited due to various techno-economic reasons. It is one of the strongest natural fibres having rich cellulose content. Apart from textile uses, ramie fibre can be utilised for the production of various diversified products. Still in present scenario, there is much scope for research and development on this valuable fibre. This study briefs the extraction, mechanical processing, fibre properties and value addition of ramie fibre.
There are three basic steps required for fabric production. The first step in creating fabric is yarn production. Here, the raw materials that have been harvested and processed are transformed from raw fibers into yarn and threads. This is done by spinning the fibers. Spinning can be done by hand, but this process is quite tedious and time consuming. These days, the vast majority of spinning is done by spinning wheel. The fibers are drawn across the wheel, and as it spins, the fibers are collected on a cylindrical object called a bobbin.
We have been manufacturing fibers from the renewable raw material wood for about 80 years. We have also secured a leadership position in the 21st century thanks to a passion for our products and technological know-how.
Synthetic fibers, which account for about half of all fiber usage, are made from synthesized polymers based on raw materials such as petroleum. The different types of fibers are produced from widely diverse chemical compounds. Each synthetic fiber has unique properties and characteristics that suit it for specific applications. Synthetic fibers and fabrics are used in a broad variety of industries and sectors, including aerospace, apparel, architecture and construction, automotive and transportation, chemical processing, electrical and electronic, filtration, marine, medical and welding.
Read more. All textiles are made up of fibres that are arranged in different ways to create the desired strength, durability, appearance and texture.