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- Good manufacturing practices: Dairy processors
- Dulce de Leche—Chemistry and Processing Technology
- The Dairy Industry: Process, Monitoring, Standards, and Quality
- Dairy Product Manufacturing Miniplant
- FERMENTED MILK PRODUCTS
- U.S. Food and Drug Administration
- Goat Milk Products: Quality, Composition, Processing, Marketing
- Dairy Facts and Figures
- CONDENSED MILK
Good manufacturing practices: Dairy processorsVIDEO ON THE TOPIC: Mini Dairy Plant - PPT #dairyplant
The method of preserving milk by sterilizing evaporated milk in sealed containers was developed at the beginning of the s.
Earlier, in about , the method of preserving evaporated milk by the addition of sugar had been perfected by an American. The manufacture of condensed milk, using these two methods, has developed into a large-scale industry. Later production by using continuous heating systems followed by aseptic packaging technology has been introduced. A distinction is made between two different types; unsweetened and sweetened condensed milk.
Both products can be made from fresh milk or recombined milk milk powder, fat and water. Unsweetened condensed milk also called double concentrated milk is a sterilized product, light in colour and with the appearance of cream. The product has a large market, for example in tropical countries, at sea and for the armed forces.
It is also used where fresh milk is not available as a fresh milk substitute. In many countries where normal milk is available, it is used as a coffee whitener. Unsweetened condensed milk is also used as a substitute for breast milk. In this case, vitamin D is added. The condensed milk is made from whole milk, skim milk or recombined milk with skim milk powder, anhydrous milk fat AMF and water see also Chapter 18, Recombined milk products.
The increased dry matter is reached by either evaporation of fresh milk or by recombination by milk powder. The evaporated product, the unsweetened condensed milk, is normally packed in cans, which are then sterilized in autoclaves or horizontal sterilizers, or UHT-treated and aseptically packed in paperboard packages. Sweetened condensed milk is basically concentrated milk, to which sugar has been added.
The product is yellowish in colour and high viscous. The high sugar concentration in sweetened condensed milk increases the osmotic pressure to such a level that most of the microorganisms are destroyed.
This product is not heat treated after packaging as its high sugar content preserves it for a long shelf-life. The sugar concentration in the water phase must not be less than At the latter level, the sugar solution reaches its saturation point and some sugar may then crystallize, forming a sediment.
The manufacturing processes for these two products are shown as block diagrams in Figures The first stage, in both cases, comprises precision standardization of the milk fat content and the dry matter content. This is followed by heat treatment, which serves partly to destroy the microorganisms in the milk, and partly to stabilize the milk, so that it will not coagulate in the subsequent sterilization process.
Raw material requirements and the initial treatment are identical for both products. After that, the processes differ slightly. In the manufacture of unsweetened condensed milk also called evaporated milk , the heat-treated milk is pumped to an evaporator, where it is concentrated. The concentrate is then homogenized and cooled. Checks are carried out on the coagulation stability, and a stabilizing salt, usually disodium or trisodium phosphate, is added if necessary.
In the case of canned products, the concentrate is packed and sterilized in an autoclave. The cans are cooled before being placed in storage. In the case of UHT-treated product, the stabilized concentrate is first sterilized and then packed aseptically. Figure Similar technology is utilized also when production of concentrated milk is based on recombination.
In this case, standardization is taking place during recombination or reconstitution. Zoom Fig. The quality of the raw material for condensed milk is basically the same as that used in the manufacture of ordinary long-life milk products. Precise control of the bacteria in the process is thus an essential requirement in the manufacture of condensed milk. The ability of milk to withstand intensive heat treatment depends to a great extent on its acidity, which should be low, and on the salt balance in the milk.
The latter is affected by seasonal variations, the nature of the fodder and the stage of lactation. It is possible to improve the ability of the milk to withstand the required level of heat treatment by additives or pre-treatment. Pre-treatment is essentially for the final quality and includes standardization of fat content, solids-non-fat, as well as heat treatment.
Condensed milk is marketed with a stipulated content of fat and dry solids. The figures vary with the applicable standard, but are normally 7. Modern automatic standardization systems permit continuous and extremely accurate standardization of both fat content and the relation between fat content and solids-non-fat of the basic milk. More information on standardization will be found in Chapter 6. Before being sterilized, the standardized milk undergoes intensive heat treatment to destroy microorganisms and to improve its thermal stability.
During heat treatment a great part of the whey proteins is denatured, while calcium salts are precipitated. In this way, the protein complex of the milk is stabilized so that it can withstand subsequent sterilization, without coagulation during the process or subsequent storage.
The nature of the heat treatment will largely determine the colour and viscosity of the end product, and is thus extremely important for the product quality. The evaporator is usually of the multistage falling-film type. The milk passes through steam-heated tubes under vacuum. The dry matter content of the milk increases as the water is boiled off. The density is checked continuously. The concentrated milk is pumped from the evaporator to a homogenizer, which operates at a pressure of 5 — 25 MPa 50 — bar.
Homogenization disperses the fat and prevents the fat globules from coalescing during subsequent sterilization. Homogenization should not be too intensive, because that might impair the stability of the protein, with the consequent risk of the milk coagulating during sterilization. It is therefore necessary to find the exact homogenization pressure that is high enough to produce the required fat dispersion, yet low enough to eliminate the risk of coagulation.
For in-can sterilization, the pressure is generally between and bar two-stage. In UHT processing, homogenization during pre-treatment is normally low, in order to avoid separation during storage of the concentrate prior the final heat treatment. The main homogenization then takes place in the UHT treatment normally in downstream aseptic position. A final check of the fat content and the solids-non-fat is usually made at this stage. As mentioned previously, the heat stability of the condensed milk can be improved by the addition of stabilizing salts, usually sodium phosphates.
The quantity of phosphate to be added is determined by sample sterilization, to which varying amounts of stabilizing salts are added. Tests are needed because variations occur between batches of milk. It is a time-consuming test-procedure and further processing must wait until the results are available. In the meantime, the concentrate must be stored. However, long-term storage should be avoided, not only to prevent bacterial growth, but long cold storage may increase the tendency of age gelation of the final product.
Any addition of vitamins is also done at this stage. Canning machines for condensed milk automatically fill and seal the cans before sterilization. The canning temperature is selected to give the lowest possible froth formation. The filled and sealed cans pass from the filling machine to the autoclave, which operates either continuously or on the batch principle. In the batch autoclave, the cans are first stacked in special crates, which are then stacked inside the autoclave. In the continuous autoclave , the cans pass through on a conveyor belt at a precisely controlled speed see also Figures in Chapter 9, Long-life milk.
In both types, the cans are kept in motion during sterilization to distribute the heat more quickly and more evenly through the cans. Any protein precipitated during heat treatment is uniformly distributed throughout the milk.
This temperature is maintained for 15 — 20 minutes, after which the milk is cooled to storage temperature. The heat treatment is intense. This results in a light brown colouration, because of chemical reactions between the protein and the lactose Maillard reaction or browning reaction.
UHT treatment, mainly in tubular heat exchanger plants described in Chapter 9, Long-life milk , can also be used for heat treatment of condensed milk. After cooling, the milk is packed aseptically in paperboard packages and stored. The milk goes brownish if the storage temperature is too high, and protein may precipitate if the storage temperature is too low. UHT treated condensed milk has normally a shelf-life of 6 — 9 months.
Sweetened condensed milk can be made from whole milk or skim milk, or recombined condensed milk — based on skim milk powder, anhydrous milk fat AMF and water. In the manufacture of sweetened condensed milk the heat-treated milk is pumped to the evaporator, where it is concentrated.
Sugar in solution is usually added to the concentrate during evaporation, but the sugar can also be added dry, in the correct proportion calculated on dry substance, before evaporation. After concentration, the product is cooled in such a way that the lactose forms very small crystals in the supersaturated solution. After cooling and crystallization, the sweetened condensed milk is packed. Before evaporation, the fat and solids-non-fat values of the milk have been standardized to predetermined levels in the same way as for unsweetened condensed milk.
The milk has also been heat-treated to destroy microorganisms and enzymes which could cause problems and to stabilize the protein complex. Heat treatment is important to the development of product viscosity during storage, and is particularly important in the case of sweetened condensed milk.
A gel can form if the heat treatment is too severe. The addition of sugar is a key step in the manufacture of sweetened condensed milk. It is important that the correct proportion is added, as the shelf life of the milk depends on its osmotic pressure being sufficiently high. A sugar content of at least Two methods are used for addition of sugar:. The stage at which the sugar is added affects the viscosity of the end product.
One theory maintains that early addition of sugar can cause the product to become too viscous during storage. Evaporation of sweetened condensed milk is carried out in essentially the same way as for unsweetened.
Originally hailing from Latin America, dulce de leche DL is one of the most widely manufactured dairy products in South America, where it is marketed as a paste or bar. The primary ingredients used to manufacture DL are milk, sucrose, and an acidity reducer. Needless to say, the raw materials must be of good quality from reliable suppliers in order for the final product to have the desired characteristics. The milk used to make DL must be microbiologically safe, remain stable during thermal processing, and preferably exhibit a high solid content. This chapter aims to explore the chemistry, processing technology, and most common industrial practices for manufacturing DL in South America. Milk Production, Processing and Marketing.
Dulce de Leche—Chemistry and Processing Technology
Note: This document is reference material for investigators and other FDA personnel. The document does not bind FDA, and does not confer any rights, privileges, benefits, or immunities for or on any person s. State and local regulatory agencies are responsible for the enforcement of sanitation requirements on dairy farms, in processing plants, dry milk plants, receiving and transfer stations establishments where raw milk or cream is received for further transport. The Public Health Service has no legal jurisdiction in the enforcement of milk sanitation standards except on interstate carriers and milk and milk products shipped in interstate commerce. To assist states and municipalities in initiating and maintaining effective programs for prevention of milkborne diseases, the Public Health Service developed in a model regulation known as the Standard Milk Ordinance for voluntary adoption by state and local milk control agencies.
The Dairy Industry: Process, Monitoring, Standards, and Quality
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Wednesday, January 15, Listed Suppliers. Advanced Process Technologies, Inc. We are committed to design, fabricate, and install the best system possible for your new or existing facility. Founded in , Advanced Process Technologies, Inc. With a total of 64, sq. In , our first Advanced Cheese Vat ACV was developed and installed to provide the industry with a design proven to enhance cheese yields and provide performance that is unsurpassed in cheesemaking operations. With this product line expansion, also came a 22, square foot addition to our facility enabling our manufacturing team to increase production and also aided in the design and manufacturing of additional capital equipment.
Dairy Product Manufacturing Miniplant
Although the Safe Food for Canadians Regulations SFCR came into force on January 15, , certain requirements are being phased in over the following 12 to 30 months. For more information, refer to the SFCR timelines. The following good manufacturing practices GMPs are intended to help dairy processors control the operational conditions within their facility, allowing for environmental conditions that are favourable to the production of safe and suitable dairy products. The premises include all elements in the building and building surroundings: building design and construction, product flow, sanitary facilities, water quality, drainage, the outside property, roadways and waste disposal. Adequate segregation of incompatible products and activities is necessary where cross contamination may otherwise result. Examples of incompatible products and activities include raw materials and pasteurized or sterilized food products, cleaning products and food products, and waste materials or utility materials and food products. The exterior of the facility is designed, constructed and maintained to prevent entry of contaminants and pests. This section covers all floors, walls, ceilings, stairs and elevators, utility lines and electrical boxes in the facility.
FERMENTED MILK PRODUCTS
U.S. Food and Drug Administration
Dairy products are the primary food industry worldwide. In Africa, there is a long tradition of consuming fermented products. UHT Ultra High Temperature milk is a long-life product, allowing for sales outside of refrigerated distribution networks, staying fresh at room temperature for many months. Pasteurised milk is easier to produce and less expensive in terms of packaging. Pasteurised milk must be produced, distributed and purchased every day. Sweetened or unsweetened types of concentrated milk are two milk preservation techniques that are very different from each other, and usually packaged in metal tins. For unsweetened condensed milk or evaporated milk, the milk concentration is achieved during the powdering process for reconstituted milk or by evaporation, then the metal tin is sterilised in an autoclave.
Goat Milk Products: Quality, Composition, Processing, Marketing
The method of preserving milk by sterilizing evaporated milk in sealed containers was developed at the beginning of the s. Earlier, in about , the method of preserving evaporated milk by the addition of sugar had been perfected by an American. The manufacture of condensed milk, using these two methods, has developed into a large-scale industry.
Dairy Facts and Figures
All manufacturing processes are supported by sound scientific, technological, and engineering principles. Manufacturing Yogurt and Fermented Milks is designed for professionals in the dairy and food industry as well as for upper level undergraduate and graduate students majoring in Food Science, Dairy Technology and related fields. Associate Editors: Charles H. White, Ph.
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Milk is a nutritive beverage obtained from various animals and consumed by humans. Most milk is obtained from dairy cows, although milk from goats, water buffalo, and reindeer is also used in various parts of the world. In the United States, and in many industrialized countries, raw cow's milk is processed before it is consumed.