Industrial agriculture is a form of modern farming that refers to the industrialized production of livestock , poultry, fish , and crops. The methods of industrial agriculture are technoscientific, economic, and political. They include innovation in agricultural machinery and farming methods, genetic technology, techniques for achieving economies of scale in production, the creation of new markets for consumption, the application of patent protection to genetic information, and global trade. These methods are widespread in developed nations and increasingly prevalent worldwide.
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Industrialization of AgricultureVIDEO ON THE TOPIC: inDUSTrial agriculture
Tables 1 and 2 below summarise the main crop areas, cropping systems and average yields in the country as well as in the three northern Governorates. Table 1. Table 2. Area, Production and Average Yield of various crops in three northern Governorates. Generally speaking, a wide range of field crops is grown in the rain fed areas in Iraq. Main dray land crops include wheat and barley in cereals, sunflower and sesame in oil seeds, chickpea, lentil, and dry broad bean in pulses and sugar beet in industrial crops.
In certain dray land areas, some supplementary irrigation is also provided where the rainfall is not secured. Wheat is the most important staple food crop in Iraq. Barley is mainly used for animal feed. The annual average 14 years area covered by wheat and barely is about 1.
Wheat, barley, chickpea, lentil, dry broad bean and sugar beet are grown during winter as rain-fed crops in the northern Governorates of the country where to millimetres of rainfall is received annually and the region is considered to be secured for the rain-fed crop production.
Wheat is also grown in semi-secured area to millimetre of annual rainfall with supplementary irrigation. Sunflower and sesame are grown during summer season mainly under irrigation.
In some high rainfall areas in the northern Governorates, sunflower is also grown as rain-fed crop. Since barley has some drought resistant capacity, barley is generally grown in comparatively dryer areas than wheat. Current yield levels of crops in Iraq are significantly lower than the international averages. Due to prolonged war, sanctions, civil strife and drought of and , Iraq could not improve the productivity potential of its main field crops. The infrastructures for research and extension services and inputs production established prior to the war were either damaged during the war or deteriorated afterwards due to shortage of funds for maintenance and operation.
In the northern Governorates, wheat, barley, chickpea, lentil and sunflower are the most important dry land field crops. Chickpea has become a popular cash crop among farmers mainly because of the suitability of the area for its production, attractive market price, crop rotation and soil fertility improvement.
The total dry land area in the three northern Governorates is estimated at about , ha FAO The yield levels are slightly higher than in the centre and south. The average wheat yield is kg per ha and barley is kg per ha. The introduction of the Food Basket that is mostly supplied by imported grains had depressing impact on domestic wheat prices and resulted in many farmers switching to barley production for feed.
Rice, maize, cotton and sunflower crops are mainly grown under irrigation during summer season. Rice is second most important staple food crop and the third major cereal crop in Iraq. Annual average area for maize is about 73 ha and production is about tons. Maize is comparatively a new crop in Iraq, introduced to supplement poultry feed production.
Rice and maize crops are rotated with vegetables, sunflower and cotton. The productivity of rice and maize decreased during the sanctions period mainly due to shortage of inputs such as fertilisers, pesticides and irrigation water, as well as to substantially reduced research and extension services in the country.
In the northern governorate of Iraq, sunflower and rice are grown as irrigated field crops. Generally winter crops are grown during the period of October to May and summer season crops are grown from March to September. Tomato, cucumber, watermelon, onion, okra, eggplant, sweet melon, broad green bean, green bean, sweet pepper, squash, lettuce, spinach, Swiss chard, carrot, cabbage and cauliflower are the main vegetables and date palm, citrus, grape, pomegranate, stone fruits apricot, plum, peach, almond , pear, olive, apples and fig are the main fruit crops grown in Iraq.
Iraq is considered to be the largest producer of date palm fruit in the world. Vegetables and fruits provide good supplementary and nutritive food in daily diet and they also fetch attractive price for the producers.
Vegetables are grown all year round in Iraq. Similarly fruit trees are grown throughout Iraq as the climate is considered highly suitable for various fruits. Date palm is the most popular fruit in Iraq, which is grown in the central and southern part of the country.
Deciduous fruits are mostly grown in the central and northern Iraq due to the presence of cold climate. The seasonal fresh fruits are available almost all the year round. The quality of fruits produced in Iraq is generally low. Improper harvesting techniques and post harvest handling are the most important reasons for the low quality. Significant amount of grape, fig and apricot fruits are dried and consumed in variety of ways in Iraq. Pomegranates are used for juice extraction and the juice is used for cooking and other purposes.
Some potential for increasing vegetable production has been exploited mainly by using imported high yielding varieties, modern irrigation systems and plastic structures. But fruit sector is very much behind its potentials for possible improvement in productivity and production. Variety mixture, lack of pruning and maintenance, pests and diseases and improper harvesting and post harvest handling are some of the major problems of fruit production in Iraq.
The northern Governorates of Iraq are rich in deciduous fruits and vegetable production. The Oil-for-Food programme was instrumental in improving the productivity of vegetables in northern Iraq.
The yield levels of major vegetables, especially tomato, have increased significantly during the last few years. This was mainly due to the supply of high yielding varieties and appropriate technical support under the programme. Over time, the soils of Iraq have considerably deteriorated in both physical and chemical properties.
The fertility deterioration was mainly due to constant removal of crop residues organic matter to feed animals, absence of crop rotation and fallowing, compaction of soil due to high animal stocking and use of heavy machines and high erosion imposed by monoculture. Other factor for soil fertility deterioration has been the, limited application of fertilisers caused by shortage and high cost.
Monoculture was introduced with the introduction of agriculture mechanisation in Iraq. Monoculture farming also increased weed, disease and pest population along with the depletion of soil fertility. The deterioration in soil fertility has resulted in current yield levels of most crops in Iraq of being significantly lower than the international average.
The annual average requirement of wheat and barley seeds is about , tons and , tons, respectively. Prior to the sanctions Iraq had established state owned three seed companies with nearly 80, tons of seed production and processing capacity. But during the sanctions, seed production and processing capacity of these companies has virtually collapsed. Lack of good quality seeds continued to be the main constraints to increasing crop production in Iraq.
The seeds produced and distributed during the sanction period have been generally poor in quality. Both physical and genetic purity levels have been low. The seed industry has suffered from lack of timely maintenance of processing plants and staff incentives. Since the agriculture research has also deteriorated, provision of new crop varieties in the seed production stream through research remained virtually non-existent.
However, variety development, seed multiplication and processing sectors are in dire state that needed urgent and strong improvement programme. The Government of Iraq has, therefore, proposed the introduction of additional five units of seed processing facilities with 80, tons capacity for the centre and south of Iraq under the Oil-for-Food Programme DPX. The plants, however, have not yet arrived in the country. In the three northern Governorates of Iraq, seven mobile seed cleaners, each with a capacity of one ton per hour, were provided through the Oil-for-Food programme, and made a significant contribution to improve the supply of quality of wheat and barley seeds.
During the year , the mobile cleaners cleaned 12, tons of seeds for the farmers additional three seed processing plants have also been proposed to cater for the requirements of seed processing in the three northern Governorates.
FAO has also initiated informal improved seed production system for wheat in the northern Governorates. The quality of wheat seed in the north has greatly improved.
Seeds for vegetable such as cucumber, tomato, watermelon, onion, sweet pepper, cabbage, cauliflower and melon are traditionally imported. Similarly prior and during the sanctions period, Iraq has been importing certified and hybrid sunflower seeds. A large proportion of vegetable seeds are supplied by the private sector. An element that could be successfully applied, at least in the first years of the whole seed process to be developed, is the use of the Quality Declared Seeds as proposed by FAO and successfully applied on other similar difficult situations Afghanistan, Rwanda or in peaceful conditions Costa Rica, Zambia.
In conclusion, there is a need to establish a seed system in the country to add value to its local seed related activities including conservation and sustainable use of PGRFA. Iraq was self sufficient in compound N. P and urea nitrogenous fertilisers prior to the sanctions.
During the sanctions period, due to lacking in appropriate maintenance and availability of spare parts, the production capacity of the existing three fertiliser factories deteriorated markedly reaching virtual collapse.
This consequently reduced the production of required fertilisers and led to substantial decline in fertiliser application rates than in turn resulted in significant reduction in soil fertility and crop productivity. Before the sanctions, Iraq had annual capacity of producing 1. P and 1 million tones of urea fertiliser. Some surplus production used to be exported. FAO records in the north programme shows that between and the Oil-for-Food programme imported nearly 83, tons of mainly Di-ammonium phosphate fertiliser for the three northern Governorates.
Informal and private sectors have been filling the gap in the centre, south and northern Governorates of Iraq. Because of the low price of wheat and barley, most farmers can not afford to apply fertiliser as required for optimum crop production unless it is highly subsidised. Conservation agriculture goes beyond the single farming practices applied for production of a specific crop.
It involves the complete agricultural system where production of crops plays an important role. Conservation farming should start with the adoption of simple procedures such as avoiding burning and preserving crop residue on the soil surface, using the right population of plants; using appropriate tillage and planting systems. Implementation of these farming procedures will lead to conservation agriculture and will by itself, increase yield and stabilize production with sustainability.
Adoption of more complex farming practices, such as crop rotation and no tillage requires a higher standard of agricultural management and takes much longer time to integrate.
In general, plant pests, diseases and weeds impose a serious threat to crop production in Iraq. Population of weeds, insect pests and diseases was increased by the introduction of monoculture farming in the country. Sunn pest and cover smut in wheat and barley, Dubas bug and Borer in date palm, whitefly in citrus and vegetables and mites in fruits and vegetables are the most important pests and diseases that have been causing serious losses in agriculture production in Iraq.
Similarly, several broad and narrow leaf weeds in major crops have also been responsible for the low crop yields in Iraq. Traditionally, Iraq has been relying heavily on agrochemicals for the control of various weeds, pests and diseases. During the years to , Iraq imported a total of tons of fungicides, 2, tons of herbicides, 3, tons of insecticides and tons of nematicides for the centre and south of Iraq.
The gap is filled by informal and private sectors.
The US has long embraced industrialized farming methods, but agricultural industrialization as we know it today began in earnest after World War II. Its hallmarks are mechanization and reliance on inputs like nitrogen fertilizers, pesticides and intensive irrigation. While we may think of industrial agriculture as a relatively new phenomenon, our country was built on ever-expanding farming methods. The scale on which agricultural projects take place has ballooned since the s. Today, the hallmarks of industrial crop production are the widespread use of chemical fertilizers, pesticides, irrigation and machinery; huge fields that are anywhere from hundreds to hundreds of thousands of acres in size; a distinct lack of crop diversity or crop rotation; a heavy reliance on fossil fuels. Industrial crops are not just vast acres of corn and soybeans in the Midwest, grown for animal feed , ethanol and processed food.
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Industrial agriculture is currently the dominant food production system in the United States. It's characterized by large-scale monoculture, heavy use of chemical fertilizers and pesticides, and meat production in CAFOs confined animal feeding operations. The industrial approach to farming is also defined by its heavy emphasis on a few crops that overwhelmingly end up as animal feed, biofuels, and processed junk food ingredients. From its midth century beginnings, industrial agriculture has been sold to the public as a technological miracle. Its efficiency, we were told, would allow food production to keep pace with a rapidly growing global population, while its economies of scale would ensure that farming remained a profitable business. Scientists and farmers are developing smart, modern agricultural systems that could reduce or eliminate many of the costs of industrial agriculture—and still allow farmers to run a profitable business. Industrial farming is bad for the health of workers, eaters, and downstream neighbors.
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Springer Shop Bolero Ozon. Masoomeh Rashidghalam. This book employs different parametric and non-parametric panel data models which have been used in history of developed panel data efficiency measurement literature. It assesses the differences of models based on characteristics and efficiency scores measurement using a systematic sensitivity analysis of the results. On the whole twelve parametric and four nonparametric models were studied. Parametric models are classified in four groups in terms of the assumptions made on the temporal behavior of inefficiency.
Enter your login details below. If you do not already have an account you will need to register here. Once production of your article has started, you can track the status of your article via Track Your Accepted Article. Papers concern both crop-oriented and bio-based materials from crops-oriented research, and should be of interest to an international Papers concern both crop-oriented and bio-based materials from crops-oriented research, and should be of interest to an international audience, hypothesis driven, and where comparisons are made statistics performed. The following are examples of research that fit within the scope of the journal. Benefits to authors We also provide many author benefits, such as free PDFs, a liberal copyright policy, special discounts on Elsevier publications and much more. Please click here for more information on our author services. Please see our Guide for Authors for information on article submission. If you require any further information or help, please visit our Support Center.
Industrial Crop Production
World food shortage and oil price rises in late s have triggered large-scale commercial agriculture in sub-Saharan Africa, which is still accelerating. Observing the enormous agricultural potentials and the incentives of cheap land, cheap labor and exemption from taxation, foreign companies are arriving in Ethiopia in large numbers. The government is explicit about the purpose of promoting commercial agriculture, which amongst others, is modernizing smallholder dominated subsistent agriculture through technology transfer, creating employment opportunities and boosting export-oriented crop production.
Being the foundation of life, a seed is indeed a miracle… A miracle small in size but great in capacity, sprouting and perishing as soon as we water it… An incredible miracle containing all the information of a plant, which determines its species, colour, shape and taste…. It all began with a woman accidentally dropping a seed of wheat to the soil. Around 10, years ago, fate of humanity dramatically changed with cultivation of wheat in southeast Turkey. Hunter-gatherer lifestyles were replaced with permanent settlements. We can neither feed the world through conventional agriculture nor keep our planet unpolluted The Industrial Revolution introduced modernization in primitive agricultural methods; therefore the second phase of agriculture began. However, with the huge upsurge in population growth following World War II, arable lands were cultivated uncontrollably to meet the growing need for food, along with the increase in the use of chemical fertilizers and pesticides. What did not pose a threat then is now causing big problems. The third phase of agriculture began after greenhouse cultivation had been developed in the second half of the 20th century. And thus, more varied crops began to be produced in longer seasons and in smaller spaces. By , the world population is expected to reach 12 billion people, and agricultural lands are projected to diminish.
Not a MyNAP member yet? Register for a free account to start saving and receiving special member only perks. The United States has abundant forests and croplands, favorable climates, accessible capital, and sophisticated technologies for a strong biobased industry. As agriculture productivity and silviculture productivity continue to increase, more biomass will be available to support a biobased industry. Advances in biotechnology will keep a continuous supply of new crops flowing into the marketplace. The United States has substantial resources to invest in a carbon economy based on renewable resources. Conversion of industrial production to the use of renewable resources will require abundant and inexpensive raw materials. The three potential sources of such materials are agricultural and forest crops and biological wastes e. The amount of each resource available for biobased production will depend on how much these crops are consumed by competing uses and how much land is dedicated to crops grown for industrial uses.
Industrial Crops and Products
In operation by , it was among the earliest U. Public domain. In the early s, more than half of Americans were either farmers or lived in rural communities. Animals were typically raised with access to the outdoors. Most of the work on the farm was done by human or animal labor. Although conditions like these still exist, the industrialization of agriculture radically transformed how the vast majority of food is produced in the U.
A crop is a plant or plant product that can be grown and harvest ed for profit or subsistence. By use, crops fall into six categories: food crops, feed crops, fiber crops, oil crops, ornamental crops, and industrial crops. Food crop s, such as fruit and vegetable s, are harvested for human consumption.
Tables 1 and 2 below summarise the main crop areas, cropping systems and average yields in the country as well as in the three northern Governorates. Table 1. Table 2. Area, Production and Average Yield of various crops in three northern Governorates.
An industrial crop , also called a non-food crop , is a crop grown to produce goods for manufacturing, for example of fibre for clothing, rather than food for consumption. Industrial crops is a designation given to an enterprise that attempts to raise farm sector income, and provide economic development activities for rural areas. Industrial crops also attempt to provide products that can be used as substitutes for imports from other nations.
Когда они - впрочем, довольно редко - разражались слезами полной безнадежности и отчаяния, их крошечные горести казались ему более трагичными, чем долгое отступление Человека после утраты Галактической Империи.
Это было нечто слишком грандиозное и удаленное для того, чтобы вызвать сопереживание, а хныканье ребенка пронзало самое его сердце.