Why should we care about food chains unless we are biologists that are just curious? Humans are animals that eat other animals. When the population of an animal that we like to eat like salmon decreases there can be several reasons: someone else is eating our salmon or the salmon can't find the food they normally eat. If we know who eats salmon, what salmon eat, and what those animals eat, maybe we can correct the situation and put more fish on our table. If you look at the sizes of the individual animals, as in the previous section, the food chain looks like an upside-down pyramid red resting on its point.
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Why should we care about food chains unless we are biologists that are just curious? Humans are animals that eat other animals. When the population of an animal that we like to eat like salmon decreases there can be several reasons: someone else is eating our salmon or the salmon can't find the food they normally eat. If we know who eats salmon, what salmon eat, and what those animals eat, maybe we can correct the situation and put more fish on our table.
If you look at the sizes of the individual animals, as in the previous section, the food chain looks like an upside-down pyramid red resting on its point. However, if you look at the number and total mass of animals in each layer of the food chain it looks like a right-side-up pyramid blue : number and total mass of animals increase as you go from top to bottom of the chain.
The result of these factors is that the food chain is a pyramid: a small number of large animals at the top and a much larger number of small animals at the bottom. The numbers assuming a 5 percent efficiency for each layer are given in the table below.
The real world is more complicated, the bear lives on more than salmon alone, and the effeciency is most likely different for each layer. However, the take home lesson is that the total mass of organisms in each layer of a food chain gets larger as you go toward the bottom. In the following table total mass required for each layer increases 20 fold for each layer 5 percent effeciency , and the total numbers are then the mass divided by the mass per organism.
Some whales eat krill, a small shrimp-like animal, and the ratio in weight is almost as large. At the bottom this food pyramid splits into two arms, A and B, and connects the living to the non-living world. In fact, there is evidence that a mixture is required for good copepod health [Science vp ]. Copepods are released as eggs from the mother and then go through 11 molts. Copepods in the first 6 stages are called nauplii, and in the next 4 stages copepodids. The first naupli has only 3 sets of legs and typically does not eat.
The biggest change in morphology occurs between the last naupli and the first copepodid. Subsequent molts add segments at the end of the animal to finally produce the adult the Figure below does not explicitly contain all these stages. The average time between molts is about 2 days, thus the total time between fertilization and adult is 30 days. In the laboratory the adult can live days, but in the wild the adults typically live only a few days before being eaten.
Animals that eat copepods herring are in an upper darker slice through the cone. In a sense the copepods are falling into a darker hole when they are eaten. Animals dinoflagellates and plants diatoms eaten by copepods are on a lower lighter slice through the cone. These organisms are falling into a darker hole when they are eaten. Thus the concept of a food cone is not just a gimmick to illustrate the life cycle of the copepod.
Rather, copepod as predator or prey is the time average of its forms, and in the ocean, most copepod are juvenile. Animals and bacteria need oxygen, which they can get from the atmosphere or from plants. They produce carbon dioxide. Plants need carbon dioxide, which they can get from the atmosphere or from animals and bacteria. In the absence of oxygen some bacteria obtain the equivalent from sulfur containing compounds, and they then produce hydrogen sulfide.
Bacteria are the most versatile metabolic machine, and exploit many variations on these metabolic themes. Feces also contains dissolved inorganic material the blue arrow , especially phosphorous and iron, which are often the limiting material for plants trying to grow in the ocean. Bacteria can also take up dissolved inorganic material, but often the organic material already provides all they need. Of course, when any of these organisms die they decompose and release both organic and inorganic material which is then used by the living organisms.
Everything is recycled in the living world. The complete environment for one species is called an ecological niche. In one geographical location there are typically many ecological niches.
As an example, in shallow water some organisms may float close to the surface, some may swim throughout the water, some may live in the bottom mud, some may live on the surface of seaweed, some will be a parasite of another species, etc. In addition, for each of these micro-environments different species will generally eat different items, and thus occupy different niches.
Thus, both the location and the behavior of a species defines the niche it occupies. However, now we claim that niches are discrete, and generally only one species occupies one niche.
In fact you could say that the species defines the niche. However, it could be claimed that the niche defines a species. This is actually a deep and important topic, but too large to explore here. Green areas indicate living plants while black indicate anaerobic non-oxygen requiring bacteria. A lake has plants concentrated at the surface where the light intensity is highest. The concentration of plants is limited by the concentration of phosphate.
The plants release oxygen into the water which supports a large collection of animals and bacteria. Phosphates are added to the lake by human activities. It could be fertilizer runoff or sewage effluent. At first the density of plants increases, but plants become so concentrated that sunlight is blocked for the plants toward the bottom.
These plants then start to die and provide food for bacteria that consume oxygen. The oxygen concentration falls there are no living plants to produce oxygen and then animals also die. The dead animals provide food for bacterial that consume the little remaining oxygen. Eventually the only organisms alive are anaerobic bacteria, which do not require oxygen black. These bacterial produce hydrogen sulfide, the gas also produced by rotting eggs.
One might be tempted to call this a sick lake. This would be anthropocentric; the lake just contains a different spectrum of living organisms. However, humans would find it unpleasant, and the total mass of living organisms is lower, thus the "sick lake" label.
A food chain is a description of who eats who or what. The food chain as a pyramid. The food chain as a web of organisms and molecules. In the picture on the left the who's are fish, and the rule that defines the food chain is that big fish eat little fish.
Simple as it is, this is a good general rule. Layer 1: Bear A large mammal that catches spawning fish in shallow rivers. Layer 2: Salmon A fish that hatches in a river, matures in the ocean, and returns to the same river to spawn and be eaten by bears.
Layer 3: Herring An ocean fish similar to the sardine and a favorite food of the salmon. Layer 4: Copepod A small crustacean eaten by herring whenever they can catch them. When one animal eats another the eater predator gets bigger and the eaten prey appears to disappear. It may just seem like a one-for-one conversion, but it is not an even trade. Much of the prey can't be digested, e.
Another portion of the prey is converted into energy to enable the predator to move around and eat more prey. Another portion of the prey is converted to heat. As a result of this low " efficiency " of conversion the total mass in each level of a food chain must increase as you go from top to bottom. Since the size of animals generally decreases as you go from top to bottom of the food chain, the number of animals increases even faster than the total mass.
This example of a food chain suggests that individual prey are smaller, but not too much smaller, than the predator. This is typically true, but need not be. Manta rays, fish that exceed a hundred kg in weight, eat copepods that weigh about a mg: www. Dinoflagellates dancing flagellates have two flagella which beat at right angles to each other, although only one is visible in this picture the curved line coming down and left from the large spot.
The many different species have different shapes and sizes, this one is about 0. They enjoy eating bacteria. Diatoms are plants, and thus the end of this arm of the food pyramid since they don't eat living organisms. Instead they use energy from the sun and make sugar from CO 2 and water photosynthesis.
They come in a huge variety of shapes and sizes this one is 0. Bacteria typically 0. Instead they take up organic molecules sugars, amino acids, fats, etc. They oxidize some of these molecules to generate energy, using oxygen from the atmosphere. The remaining molecules are converted into the components of the bacterial cell enabling it to grow and multiply.
The food pyramid described above is actually just a flat triangle, but the animals at each layer have a life independent of eating and being eaten. For example, the copepods in layer 4 are born, grow, mate, produce baby copepods and die even as they are eating from the layer below and being eaten by the layer above.
Copepods are crustaceans members of the arthropod phyla, the group that includes insects and they have a hard shell exoskeleton instead of the internal network of bones that humans have. They grow by periodically molting: splitting and shedding their shell, and then growing a new larger one.
On the left we are looking down the food cone at a slice through the copepod level. Time is indicated by rotation, like the hands of a clock. The real food cone is very complex. Here we see just a cohort of copepods, but in the real world at any time there are animals present at all stages of development. Animals that prefer the small eggs of copepods may not be able to eat the large adults. Other predators wouldn't bother to eat an egg, but do eat large adults.
Victoria L. Todd, Ian B. Todd, Jane C. Gardiner, Erica C.
Cetacean diet refers to the types and amount of food taken by whales, dolphins, and porpoises, all of which belong to the mammalian order Cetacea. Cetaceans are typically top predators in marine and in a few cases riverine ecosystems, i. Cetaceans have few natural predators aside from sharks, although killer whales Orcinus orca take adults and juveniles of other cetacean species and the bottlenose dolphin Tursiops truncatus is known to attack and kill but not eat smaller cetacean species such as the harbor porpoise Phocoena phocoena. Recent evidence indicates that gray seals also prey on harbor porpoises e. Present-day cetaceans have evolved from an original common design to be able to exploit different kinds of prey. Their morphological Skip to main content Skip to table of contents.
How humpback whales catch prey with bubble nets
Performed the experiments: JR. Analyzed the data: JR. It is well known that microbes, zooplankton, and fish are important sources of recycled nitrogen in coastal waters, yet marine mammals have largely been ignored or dismissed in this cycle. Using field measurements and population data, we find that marine mammals can enhance primary productivity in their feeding areas by concentrating nitrogen near the surface through the release of flocculent fecal plumes. Whales and seals may be responsible for replenishing 2.SEE VIDEO BY TOPIC: Ocean Animals for Kids - Whales, Sea Otter, Orca, Sea Lion + more
Monday, 20 November The kraken - and humpback whales. There is a fish not yet mentioned which it is scarcely advisable to speak about on account of its size, which to most men will seem incredible. There are, moreover, but very few who can tell anything definite about it, inasmuch as it is rarely seen by men; for it almost never approaches the shore or appears where fishermen can see it, and I doubt that this sort of fish is very plentiful in the sea. It is said, that when these fishes want something to eat, they are in the habit of giving forth a violent belch, which brings up so much food that all sorts of fish in the neighbourhood, both large and small, will rush up in the hope of getting nourishment and good fare. Meanwhile the monster keeps its mouth open, and inasmuch as its opening is about as wide as a sound or fjord, the fishes cannot help crowding in great numbers. But as soon as its mouth and belly are full, the monster closes its mouth and thus catches and shuts in all the fishes that just previously had rushed in eagerly to seek food. This account puzzled me at first and then I realised it was probably a description of a behaviour shown by humpback whales that exhale streams of bubbles while swimming m under the surface of the sea  to panic fish. The whale then lunges up through the mass of fish and, breaking the surface, closes its mouth to allow the release of water through the baleen plates . This results in the capture of much larger numbers of prey than would be possible if humpbacks used the more linear feeding method used by other baleen whales, swimming through shoals at the water surface without lunging or producing bubbles. It is thus of advantage to all individuals that partake, not only those that are closely related, and produces a larger, greater concentration of prey.
Jellyfish and comb jellies are gelatinous animals that drift through the ocean's water column around the world. They are both beautiful—the jellyfish with their pulsating bells and long, trailing tentacles, and the comb jellies with their paddling combs generating rainbow-like colors. Yet though they look similar in some ways, jellyfish and comb jellies are not very close relatives being in different phyla—Cnidaria and Ctenophora, respectively and have very different life histories. Both groups are ancient animals, having roamed the seas for at least million years.
WE have indicated the nature of the species that we have designated land animals, as living in some kind of association with men. Of the remaining kinds it is agreed that birds are the smallest. We will therefore first speak of the creatures of the seas, rivers and ponds. There are however a considerable number of these that are larger even than land animals. Birds, which live hovering in the air, are in a different condition. But in the sea, lying so widely outspread and so yielding and productive of nutriment, because the element receives generative causes from above and is always producing offspring, a great many actual monstrosities are found, the seeds and first principles intertwining and interfolding with each other now in one way and now in another, now by the action of the wind and now by that of the waves, so ratifying the common opinion that everything born in any department of nature exists also in the sea, as well as a number of things never found elsewhere. Indeed we may realize that it contains likenesses of things and not of animals only, when we examine the grape, the sword-fish, the saw-fish, and the cucumber-fish, the last resembling a real cucumber both in colour and scent; which makes it less surprising that in cockle-shells that are so tiny there are horses' heads projecting. But the largest number of animals and those of the largest size are in the Indian sea, among them whales covering three acres each, and sharks ells long: in fact in those regions lobsters grow to 6 ft. The monsters in the sea are mostly to be seen about the solstices. At those periods in that part of the world there are rushing whirlwinds and rainstorms and tempests hurtling down from the mountain ridges that upturn the seas from their bottom, and roll with their waves monsters forced up from the depths in such a multitude, like the shoals of tunnies in other places, that the fleet of Alexander the Great deployed its column in line of battle to encounter them, in the same way as if an enemy force were meeting it: it was not possible to escape them in any other manner.
Natural History (Rackham, Jones, & Eichholz)/Book 9
Humpback whales Megaptera novaeangliae are large baleen whales up to 14 m long that feed on a small prey in dense concentrations, such as krill or herrings. Humpbacks whales have large flukes relative to their size providing greater thrust for quick maneuvers. While other baleen whales feed by swimming rapidly forward, humpbacks are adapted for fine-scale movement to create bubble nets. Behaviorally, humpback whales capture prey by engaging in complex feeding maneuvers that are often accompanied by the apparently directed use of air bubble clouds the production of single or multiple bursts of seltzer-sized bubbles to corral or herd fish. These whales create bubble nets to corral and contain planktonic prey into a small area so that they can more efficiently scoop them up in their large filter-feeding mouths. Based on surface observations, these bubble-feeding behaviors appear to vary in nature among both individuals and regions. To learn more about how these whales use bubble nets in feeding, David Wiley and colleagues attached digital suction cup tags to whales that recorded depth and orientation in 3-D, allowing the scientists to recreate three dimensional images of whale swimming behavior and bubble release. The data revealed the release of bubbles while swimming in upward spirals and during a novel behavior called "double-loops" not previously known.
What lives in a kelp forest
Whale meat , broadly speaking, may include all cetaceans whales , dolphins , porpoises and all parts of the animal: muscle meat , organs offal , and fat blubber. There is relatively little demand for it, compared to farmed livestock, and commercial whaling , which has faced opposition for decades, continues today in very few countries mainly Iceland, Japan, Norway , although whale meat used to be eaten across Western Europe and colonial America. Vincent and the Grenadines mainly on the island of Bequia , in a couple of villages in Indonesia and in certain South Pacific islands. Like horse meat , for some cultures whale meat is taboo, or a food of last resort, e. Indigenous groups contend that whale meat represents their cultural survival. Its consumption has been denounced by detractors on wildlife conservation , toxicity , and animal rights grounds. Whale meat can be prepared in various ways, including salt-curing, which means that consumption is not necessarily restricted to coastal communities.
The Whale Pump: Marine Mammals Enhance Primary Productivity in a Coastal Basin
In kelp forests , the most commonly found invertebrates are bristle worms, scud, prawn, snails, and brittle stars. These animals feed on the holdfasts that keep kelp anchored to the bottom of the ocean and algae that are abundant in kelp forests. Sea urchins will often completely remove kelp plants by eating through their holdfasts.
The blue whale Balaenoptera musculus is a marine mammal belonging to the baleen whale suborder Mysticeti. Reaching a maximum confirmed length of
Трудностей. -- Ровно никаких,-- ответил Олвин, решивший еще больше усугубить их замешательство.
Я подобрал его в Лизе -- ну, в той стране, где я побывал. Я привел его сюда, чтобы он встретился с Центральным Компьютером.