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Product manufacturing equipment for the preparation of building mixtures

Product manufacturing equipment for the preparation of building mixtures

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Overview of Food Processing Equipment

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No one knows exactly when ice cream was first produced. Ancient manuscripts tell us that the Chinese liked a frozen product made by mixing fruit juices with snow — what we now call water ice. This technique later spread to ancient Greece and Rome, where the wealthy in particular were partial to frozen desserts. After disappearing for several centuries, ice cream in various forms reappeared in Italy in the Middle Ages, most probably as a result of Marco Polo returning to Italy in after some 17 years in China, where he had acquired a liking for a frozen dessert based on milk.

From Italy, ice cream spread through Europe during the 17th century, long remaining a luxury product for the royal courts. Industrial ice cream production began at the end of the 19th century when the first mechanical refrigerators were pioneered. Ice cream and related products can be divided into a number of categories. As legislation varies from one country to another, the following should be regarded as a guideline only.

The fat content of ice cream typically determines the category to which it belongs. The fat can be either of animal or vegetable origin. If the latter, legislation in a number of countries dictates that the product cannot then be called ice cream, but must be labelled, for example, non-dairy ice cream or frozen dessert.

Sorbet is the term used for a frozen, typically fruit juice-based product with a certain amount of overrun. The mix passes through a continuous freezer where air is incorporated. Sorbet products are characterized by fresh eating properties and do not contain fat or milk solids-non-fat MSNF. Due to the higher viscosity from the freezers, fruit pieces and other inclusions can also be added to the sorbet product before filling. Sherbet still retains the fresh eating properties associated with sorbet.

Frozen yoghurt gained enormous popularity in the US during the s due to its relatively low fat and calorie content. Weight and cholesterol watchers were delighted. Typically, a frozen yoghurt is a blend of standard ice cream mix and yoghurt with live bacteria, yoghurt ice cream tends to have a fresher taste than standard ice cream. Today also Greek yoghurt is popular due to the high protein content. Water ice is a blend of sugar, fruit concentrates, stabilizers, flavour and colour.

The finished mix is pasteurized and mostly filled into moulds or pockets on a rotary or in-line moulding machine.

Freezing takes place in the pockets, which pass through a cold brine salt solution freezing zone. When the water ice is frozen , it is extracted from the pocket.

Combinations together with an ice cream core also make the products appealing for adults. The development of extrusion technology has created a new category known as extruded water ice.

Basically, a water ice containing a whipping agent is pumped to the continuous freezer, where air incorporation and a significant part of the freezing of water takes place in the continuous freezer cylinder before extrusion.

Ice cream or water ice mix is filled into moulds and frozen to produce stick novelties. After extraction, the products can be dipped in chocolate or other coatings. Ice cream is typically extruded onto a tray by means of extrusion with a cutter. A wide variety of products can be produced including stick novelties, sandwiches, desserts, ball-top cones and so on.

Extrusion technology provides the possibility to work with ice cream drawn at much lower temperature where the viscosity of the ice cream is high due to more water being frozen into ice crystals. This generates ice creams that are both smoother due to smaller ice crystals and creamier due to higher churning of fat compared to moulding and filling technologies.

The higher viscosity also offers the possibility to work with detailed forms and flavours, decorations and coatings. Zoom Fig. The manner in which raw materials and ingredients are received varies from one factory to another depending on its facilities and capacity.

Dry products are usually delivered in bags. Bulk materials such as sugar and milk powder can be delivered in containers and blown into storage silos using compressed air.

Liquid products are often delivered in tankers. The fat gives creaminess and improves melting resistance by stabilising the air cell structure of the ice cream.

Milk fat is used in the form of whole milk, cream, butter or anhydrous milk fat AMF. Milk fat can be replaced by vegetable fat, where refined or hydrogenated hardened coconut oil and palm kernel oil are most commonly used.

The use of vegetable fat in ice cream is regulated by legislation in many countries. In addition to its high nutritional value, MSNF helps to stabilize the structure of ice cream due to its water-binding and emulsifying effect. The same effect also has a positive influence on air distribution in the ice cream during the freezing process, leading to improved body and creaminess. In a well-balanced recipe, the quantity of MSNF should always be in proportion to the water content.

The optimal level is 17 parts MSNF to parts water:. Zoom Formula Sugar is added to increase the solids content of the ice cream and give it the level of sweetness consumers prefer. Sugar is the common description for the saccharides, including the monosaccharides i. The consistency of the ice cream can also be adjusted by selecting different types of sugar. This makes it possible to produce ice cream that is easy to scoop. In the production of sugar-free ice cream, sweeteners are used to replace sugar.

Aspartame, acesulfame K and sucralose are the most commonly used sweeteners in ice cream and are applied in conjuction with a bulking agent such as malto-dextrin, poly-dextrose, sorbitol, lactitol, glycerol or other sugar alcohols.

Emulsifiers and stabilizers are typically used as combined products at dosages of 0. Traditionally, these products were produced by dry blending, but today integrated products are preferred due to the improved dispersion and high storage stability. Emulsifiers are substances that assist emulsification by reducing surface tension between two phases. Egg yolk is a well-known emulsifier, but is expensive and less effective than the most commonly used types.

A stabilizer is a substance that has the ability to bind water when dispersed in a liquid phase. This is called hydration and means the stabilizer forms a matrix that prevents the water molecules from moving freely.

Stabilizers are used in ice cream production to increase the viscosity of the mix and create body and texture. They also control the growth of ice crystals and improve melting resistance. The most popular flavours are vanilla, chocolate and strawberry. In the EU, flavours are classified in three groups: natural, nature-identical and artificial.

Nature-identical flavours are the most commonly used. Natural or artificial colours are added to the mix to give the ice cream an attractive appearance. Local legislation exists in most countries regarding the use of colours in food. Many moulded and extruded ice cream products are coated with chocolate. Two types of chocolate coatings are used: real chocolate and chocolate compound. The cocoa mass and butter are replaced with a blend of cocoa powder and vegetable fat in the chocolate compound.

Ripples sauces are incorporated in ice cream for taste and appearance. They can also be applied for pencil filling and top decoration. Dry ingredients are either added through an ingredient doser or as top decoration matter on cones, cups and bars.

A great variety of products are used: chocolate, nuts, dried fruit pieces, candies, cookies, Smarties, caramel pieces, etc. The mix composition and resulting ice cream are illustrated in Figure The tank-stored raw materials are heated and blended to form a homogenous mix that is pasteurized and homogenized. Large production plants often have two mix tanks for each flavour with a volume corresponding to the hourly capacity of the pasteurizer, in order to maintain a continuous flow to the freezers.

The dry ingredients, especially the milk powder, are generally added via a mixing unit, through which water is circulated, creating an ejector effect that sucks the powder into the flow. Liquid ingredients such as milk, cream, liquid sugar, etc. In large-scale production the ice cream mix flows through a filter to a balance tank. The purpose of pasteurization is to destroy bacteria and dissolve additives and ingredients. The homogenization process results in uniformly small fat globules which improves the whipping property and texture of the ice cream mix.

Ageing allows the milk proteins and water to interact and the liquid fat to crystallize. This results in better air incorporation and improved melting resistance. The ice cream mix is metered into the freezing cylinder by a gear pump.

At the same time, a constant airflow is fed into the cylinder and whipped into the mix by a dasher. Figure The refrigerant surrounding the cylinder generates the freezing process. The layer of frozen mix on the inside cylinder wall is continuously scraped off by the rotating dasher knife, and a second gear pump drives the ice cream forward either to an ingredient feeder or a filling machine.

The ice cream bar in figure Here the large air bubbles are covered with the crystallized fat globules that supports the air bubble structure. The unfrozen phase surrounding the air bubbles contains a freeze-concentrated mix of sugars, dairy solids and stabilizers. The unfrozen phase also contains the ice crystals. The function of the ingredient doser, Figure The pump is designed to ensure the ingredients are gently fed into the ice cream flow from the freezer.

The ingredient doser is designed to handle all three kinds of ingredient. Dosing accuracy is controlled by the use of ingredient-weighing cells under the ingredient hopper. A filling machine fills ice cream, sorbet and water ice directly from the freezer into cups, cones and containers of varying design, shape and size. Filling takes place by means of a time-lapse filler, a volumetric filler or an extrusion filler.

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For 75 years, Anderson Dahlen has been a leading provider of fabrication services for food processors and food processing equipment manufacturers. With extensive expertise in liquid and dry process systems, equipment and automation solutions, we offer everything from stock products to fabricated components and assemblies to integrated production systems. From components to integrated food processing systems, we can help you increase volume while reducing material waste and overall maintenance and production cost. Contact us at for our food manufacturing and processing equipment and systems. All components can be provided individually, as assemblies or as fully integrated custom systems. We design and manufacture across a wide spectrum of applications and commonly meet unusual requirements.

Cement Manufacturing Process

Drying, agglomerating , coating. Safe, flexible and user-friendly containment solutions for the manufacturing of oral solid dosage forms. The P allows the user-friendly development of dry mixtures and wet granulates in a small scale and turns out to be very versatile as benchtop unit with easily removable bowls and touchscreen. As a full-featured production machine, it allows preparing and drying of granulate also in vacuum. Finally, a series of pharmaceutical machines is available for the production scale; they range from P to P and with l to l they allow an efficient mass production. Comfortable operation, easy cleaning and high flexibility count to the advantages of the compact system, like also for the larger version, the MidiLab RC system. It convinces with a flexible range of batches as well as an easy handling which allows fast and very efficient change of bowls and technologies.

Concrete Block

In industrial process engineering , mixing is a unit operation that involves manipulation of a heterogeneous physical system with the intent to make it more homogeneous. Familiar examples include pumping of the water in a swimming pool to homogenize the water temperature, and the stirring of pancake batter to eliminate lumps deagglomeration. Modern industrial processing almost always involves some form of mixing. With the right equipment, it is possible to mix a solid, liquid or gas into another solid, liquid or gas. A biofuel fermenter may require the mixing of microbes, gases and liquid medium for optimal yield; organic nitration requires concentrated liquid nitric and sulfuric acids to be mixed with a hydrophobic organic phase; production of pharmaceutical tablets requires blending of solid powders. The opposite of mixing is segregation.

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Ready-mix concrete

Asphalt is a heavy, dark brown to black mineral substance, one of several mixtures of hydrocarbons called bitumens. Asphalt is a strong, versatile weather and chemical-resistant binding material which adapts itself to a variety of uses. Asphalt binds crushed stone and gravel commonly known as aggregate into firm, tough surfaces for roads, streets, and airport run-ways. Asphalt, also known as mineral pitch, is obtained from either natural deposits such as native asphalt or brea or as a byproduct of the petroleum industry petroleum asphalt.

The essential components of cement. The name comes from its presumed resemblance to Portland stone. They vary considerably in their chemistry and thickness and their suitability for cement manufacturing.

The production of cement is started from quarrying the raw material. The main raw materials are limestone, basalt, sand stone, pumice, gypsum. Site Exploration of suitable deposits, for the raw material has three main aims Quarrying is the breaking of the rock in a safe and economical way and then transporting the result to a plant for further reduction in size. Quarrying of raw materials involves Process of Raw Material Extracting. It is a process of excavating and exploiting the raw materials underground for any use. Limestone for example, the key raw material can be mined in the quarries with compressed air drilling and subsequently blasting with explosives. The mined limestone is then transported through dumpers or ropeways to the plant. The method of removals and machinery usages are depend on the under listed factors relating to the overburden material nature.

Jump to Raw Material Preparation and Raw Meal Design - Part One: Raw Material Preparation the product of which is further transferred to the Process of mixing the raw materials is Build-up formation of materials and rings.


A concrete block is primarily used as a building material in the construction of walls. It is sometimes called a concrete masonry unit CMU. A concrete block is one of several precast concrete products used in construction. The term precast refers to the fact that the blocks are formed and hardened before they are brought to the job site. Most concrete blocks have one or more hollow cavities, and their sides may be cast smooth or with a design. In use, concrete blocks are stacked one at a time and held together with fresh concrete mortar to form the desired length and height of the wall. Concrete mortar was used by the Romans as early as B. During the reign of the Roman emperor Caligula, in A. Much of the concrete technology developed by the Romans was lost after the fall of the Roman Empire in the fifth century.

Construction and Building Materials

It replaced the ring trough mixer and the planetary mixer , and over the course of its continuous further development it has become synonymous with optimum mixing technology. The outstanding feature of the EIRICH intensive mixer is that it separates the transportation of the mix from the actual mixing process. This results in numerous process design advantages which make EIRICH intensive mixers unique throughout the world and have led to them being used in over branches of industry. The mixing pan can be arranged either horizontally or at an optimized angle of inclination to suit the particular requirements. Because the preparation process is separate from the transportation of the mixture during the process, it is possible to vary the speed of the mixing tool and therefore the power input into the mixture within broad limits. The mixing tool can run at variable speeds - from fast to slow. This allows the power input into the mixture to be adapted to the specific mix.

Asphalt Cement

The Concrete Institute produces a variety of publications ranging from basic for DIY Projects to more advanced and once-off special interest publications. These publications form part of TCI on-going commitment to keeping the public informed about developments in concrete. Cementitious materials for concrete: standards, selection and properties —

Cement: Materials and manufacturing process

The problem of developing a good sausage plant layout is relatively complex, however small the plant may be. First of all, it would be inadvisable, and even impossible, to adapt a uniform approach in all countries or regions because of the geophysical, economical and social differences and variations in livestock, the meat trade, customs and food habits etc.

Mixing (process engineering)

Ready-mix concrete is concrete that is manufactured in a batch plant , according to a set engineered mix design. Ready-mix concrete is normally delivered in two ways. First is the barrel truck or in—transit mixers.

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No one knows exactly when ice cream was first produced. Ancient manuscripts tell us that the Chinese liked a frozen product made by mixing fruit juices with snow — what we now call water ice. This technique later spread to ancient Greece and Rome, where the wealthy in particular were partial to frozen desserts. After disappearing for several centuries, ice cream in various forms reappeared in Italy in the Middle Ages, most probably as a result of Marco Polo returning to Italy in after some 17 years in China, where he had acquired a liking for a frozen dessert based on milk.

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