Industrial agriculture is currently the dominant food production system in the United States. It's characterized by large-scale monoculture, heavy use of chemical fertilizers and pesticides, and meat production in CAFOs confined animal feeding operations. The industrial approach to farming is also defined by its heavy emphasis on a few crops that overwhelmingly end up as animal feed, biofuels, and processed junk food ingredients. From its midth century beginnings, industrial agriculture has been sold to the public as a technological miracle. Its efficiency, we were told, would allow food production to keep pace with a rapidly growing global population, while its economies of scale would ensure that farming remained a profitable business.
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Real EstateVIDEO ON THE TOPIC: Industrial Vs Sustainable Agriculture
In 4, years, China has been a nation of farmers. By the time the People's Republic of China was established in , virtually all arable land was under cultivation ; irrigation and drainage systems constructed centuries earlier and intensive farming practices already produced relatively high yields. But little prime virgin land was available to support population growth and economic development. However, after a decline in production as a result of the Great Leap Forward —60 , agricultural reforms implemented in the s increased yields and promised even greater future production from existing cultivated land.
Since China's political leaders have tried a variety of large-scale social experiments to boost agricultural production. First, a massive land reform program eliminated landlords and gave land to those who farmed it. Next, farm families were progressively organized into cooperatives , collectives , and finally people's communes. After more than twenty-five years of experience with communes, officials abolished these institutions, which had become too bureaucratic and rigid to respond to the flexible requirements of agricultural production.
Also, farm production incentives languished in the commune system. In China's leaders began a program of far-reaching agricultural reforms. Townships and villages were organized, and new incentives were incorporated into contractual relationships tying farmers to economic cooperatives and businesses.
Since the revolution in , China has devoted most of its investments and administrative energy to the industrial sector. Generally, the agricultural sector received special attention only when the leaders perceived that the sector was beginning to restrain China's overall economic development.
Agricultural output basically kept pace with the growth of population but did not expand fast enough to raise living standards. Per capita consumption of grains, fibers, edible oil, sugar, fruits, vegetables, fish, meat, eggs, and dairy products remained low.
The value of goods generated by the agricultural sector has grown, but not as fast as output generated by other sectors in the economy. In about half of the country's output came from the agricultural sector. This ratio dropped to 41 percent by , declined to 31 percent by , and fell another few percentage points in to 25 percent.
But agricultural reforms initiated in the early s brought a rise in agriculture to 33 percent of GDP in China in the late s was thus poised to confront growing demands for agricultural production with a combination of time-tested farming methods and modern agro-technology. The size and diversity of the country — in geography and in population — however, had presented a unique challenge to China's policy makers and implementors.
In the late s, China remained a predominantly agricultural country. As of about 63 percent of the population lived in rural areas, and nearly 63 percent of the national labor force was engaged in agriculture see Migration in China.
Modern technology had spread slowly in the vast farm areas, and the availability of modern supplies was less than adequate, causing growth in agricultural output to lag behind production increases in the rest of the economy. The proportion of GNP produced by agriculture declined from over 43 percent in the early s to about 29 percent in The low agricultural growth rate as compared with other sectors of the economy reflected the fact that the average farmer had far less machinery and electric power and fewer other modern production aids to work with than the average worker in industry.
Under the responsibility system , farm households and collective organizations purchased large amounts of new machinery, particularly small tractors and trucks. The power of agricultural machinery per farmer increased by almost 30 percent between and but still came to less than 1 horsepower 0. Before the early s, most of the agricultural sector was organized according to the three-tier commune system see Rural society in the People's Republic of China.
There were over 50, people's communes , most containing around 30, members. Each commune was made up of about sixteen production brigades , and each production brigade was composed of around seven production teams. The production teams were the basic agricultural collective units. They corresponded to small villages and typically included about 30 households and to members.
The communes, brigades, and teams owned all major rural productive assets and provided nearly all administrative, social, and commercial services in the countryside.
The largest part of farm family incomes consisted of shares of net team income, distributed to members according to the amount of work each had contributed to the collective effort. Farm families also worked small private plots and were free to sell or consume their products. By the end of , approximately 98 percent of the old production teams had adopted the contract responsibility system , and all but communes had been dissolved, their governmental functions passed on to 91, township and town governments.
Production team organizations were replaced by , village committees. Under the responsibility system, farm families no longer devoted most of their efforts to collective production but instead generally signed contracts with the village or town to cultivate a given crop on a particular piece of land. After harvest a certain amount of the crop had to be sold to the unit at a predetermined price, and any output beyond that amount was the property of the family, either to be sold in the market or to be consumed.
Beyond the amount contracted for delivery to the collective, farmers were allowed to determine for themselves what and how to produce. Market activity played a central role in the rural economy of the s.
Farmers sold a growing share of their produce in rural or urban free markets and purchased many of the inputs that had formerly been supplied by the team or brigade. A prominent new institution that thrived in the market environment was the "specialized household. Some of the most common specialties were trucking , chicken raising , pig raising , and technical agricultural services, such as irrigation and pest control.
Many of the specialized households became quite wealthy relative to the average farmer. The new economic climate and the relaxation of restrictions on the movements of rural residents gave rise to numerous opportunities for profit-making ventures in the countryside. Towns, villages, and groups of households referred to as "rural economic unions" established small factories, processing operations, construction teams, catering services, and other kinds of nonagricultural concerns.
Many of these organizations had links with urban enterprises that found the services of these rural units to be less expensive and more efficient than those of their formal urban counterparts. The growth of these nonagricultural enterprises in the countryside created a large number of new jobs, making it possible for many workers who were no longer needed in agriculture to "leave the land but stay in the country," significantly changing the structure of the rural economy and increasing rural incomes.
In nonagricultural enterprises in the countryside employed 21 percent of the rural labor force and for the first time produced over half the value of rural output. Although the chief characteristic of the new rural system was household farming for profit , collective organizations still played a major role.
Agricultural land still was owned by township or town governments, which determined the crops farmers contracted to grow and the financial terms of the contracts. Many township, town, and village governments also engaged in major entrepreneurial undertakings, establishing factories, processing mills, brick works, and other large-scale enterprises. Finally, the maintenance and operation of public works , such as irrigation systems, power plants, schools, and clinics, generally still was regarded as the responsibility of the collective administrations.
Four percent of the nation's farmland was cultivated by state farms, which employed 4. State farms were owned and operated by the government much in the same way as an industrial enterprise.
Management was the responsibility of a director, and workers were paid set wages, although some elements of the responsibility system were introduced in the mids. State farms were scattered throughout China, but the largest numbers were located in frontier or remote areas, including Xinjiang in the northwest, Inner Mongolia , the three northeastern provinces of Heilongjiang , Jilin , and Liaoning and the southeastern provinces of Guangdong , Fujian , and Jiangxi.
Arable land in China was particularly scarce; little more than 10 percent of the total land area, most of it in the eastern third of the country, can be cultivated. This compares with more than 20 percent for the continental United States , which is around the same size as China, despite having one billion fewer people. Further agricultural expansion was relatively difficult because almost no land that could be profitably cultivated remained unused and because, despite intensive cultivation, yields from some marginal lands were low.
Some possibility for expansion existed in thinly populated parts of the country, especially in the northeast, but the growing season there was short and the process of land reclamation prolonged and costly.
China Proper is divided by the Qinling range into highly dissimilar north and south agricultural areas. In semitropical south China, rainfall is relatively abundant and the growing season long. Rice has been the predominant grain crop. The paddies can generally be irrigated with water from rivers or other sources. Although much of the soil is acid red clay , the heavy use of fertilizer at one time organic but by the mids also including a large proportion of chemical nutrients supports high yields.
Frequently two or even three crops a year are cultivated on the same land. Food crops other than rice are also grown, most frequently in hilly areas or during the winter. These include potatoes and winter wheat. The highest grain yields in the country in the mids were generally found in the Sichuan Basin , the lower Yangtze River Valley, and Guangdong and Fujian provinces, where multiple cropping of rice and other crops was the typical pattern.
Cotton, tea, and industrial crops were also produced there. Wheat has traditionally been the main crop in north China, a considerably drier region than south China. The winter wheat crop accounts for nearly 90 percent of China's total production. Spring wheat is grown mainly in the eastern portion of Inner Mongolia and the northeastern provinces. Other important grain crops include corn , sorghum , and millet. These are usually dryland crops. Since the late s, irrigation has been greatly expanded, but water remains an important limiting factor.
Compared with the south, soils in the north are generally better; however, because of the shorter growing season and colder, drier climate, yields per cultivated hectare tend to be lower and irrigation less extensive. Labor is not as abundant in the north as in the south, but cropping patterns tend to require less labor, and mechanization especially of plowing is more advanced. The North China Plain , the most important growing area in north China, extends across several provinces.
Winter wheat and corn are the leading grain crops; cotton is also grown, and Shandong produces peanuts. The North China Plain, although fertile, was traditionally subject to frequent floods and droughts, but water conservation measures ameliorated the problem.
Winter wheat is grown in the mountainous areas west of this plain, but the climate is more severe and the danger of natural disasters even greater. The fertile soils of the northeastern plains have been used to plant corn, spring wheat, and even rice. High-quality soybeans are grown in the northeast and are exported to many Pacific rim countries.
Although Inner Mongolia produces some spring wheat and other grain, it is best known as a pastoral area. Much of China's vast and generally inhospitable northwest and southwest regions is unsuitable for cultivation. Xinjiang in the northwest, like Inner Mongolia, is also best known as a pastoral area. In Tibet Autonomous Region Xizang in the southwest, most of the cultivated area has been irrigated, and special strains of wheat, rice, and barley suitable for the climate of that high-altitude region have been developed.
China's rural labor force in consisted of about million people. The quality of the labor force had improved in the previous three decades, primarily because of the introduction of rural schools, which stressed elementary education. Nevertheless, a large portion of the rural population was illiterate or semiliterate in , and very few high school and college graduates lived in villages and towns.
Lack of education continued to retard the spread of advanced technology in rural areas. The scarcity of cultivable land and the abundance of manpower led to the development of labor-intensive production in most parts of the country.
And, although China's agriculture was less labor-intensive than that in some neighboring countries, it was characterized by meticulous tending of the land and other techniques employed in East Asia for centuries. In the s the rural labor force also was employed in rural capital construction projects and small-scale industries. During the winter months, large numbers of rural people worked on construction and maintenance of irrigation or land-leveling projects.
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Wild Crop Relatives: Genomic and Breeding Resources
In 4, years, China has been a nation of farmers. By the time the People's Republic of China was established in , virtually all arable land was under cultivation ; irrigation and drainage systems constructed centuries earlier and intensive farming practices already produced relatively high yields. But little prime virgin land was available to support population growth and economic development. However, after a decline in production as a result of the Great Leap Forward —60 , agricultural reforms implemented in the s increased yields and promised even greater future production from existing cultivated land. Since China's political leaders have tried a variety of large-scale social experiments to boost agricultural production. First, a massive land reform program eliminated landlords and gave land to those who farmed it. Next, farm families were progressively organized into cooperatives , collectives , and finally people's communes.
History of agriculture in China
Real estate is property made up of land and the buildings on it, as well as the natural resources of the land including uncultivated flora and fauna, farmed crops and livestock, water, and any additional mineral deposits. Real estate is a tangible asset and a type of real property. Real property examples include land, buildings and other improvements, plus the rights of use and enjoyment of that land and all its improvements. Renters and leaseholders may have rights to inhabit land or buildings that are considered a part of their estate, but these rights themselves are not, strictly speaking, considered real estate. Real property is not the same thing and should not to be confused with personal property. Personal property includes intangible assets like investments, along with tangible assets such as furniture and fixtures like a dishwasher.SEE VIDEO BY TOPIC: Commercial Real Estate Investing - The 4 Types of Commercial Spaces!
Wild crop relatives are now playing a significant part in the elucidation and improvement of the genomes of their cultivated counterparts. This work includes comprehensive examinations of the status, origin, distribution, morphology, cytology, genetic diversity and available genetic and genomic resources of numerous wild crop relatives, as well as of their evolution and phylogenetic relationship. Further topics include their role as model plants, genetic erosion and conservation efforts, and their domestication for the purposes of bioenergy, phytomedicines, nutraceuticals and phytoremediation. It contains chapters written by nearly well-known authors from about 40 countries. Skip to main content Skip to table of contents. Advertisement Hide. Front Matter Pages i-xxii. Pages Sinha, C. Kar, T.
Industrial agriculture is a form of modern farming that refers to the industrialized production of livestock , poultry, fish , and crops. The methods of industrial agriculture are technoscientific, economic, and political. They include innovation in agricultural machinery and farming methods, genetic technology, techniques for achieving economies of scale in production, the creation of new markets for consumption, the application of patent protection to genetic information, and global trade.
In densely populated Hong Kong, where farmland is at a premium, vertical or urban farming is a growing trend. Vertical Farming Dehumidifiers In recent years, indoor farming has been on the rise, seeing rapid expansions in scope and various advancements in technology. Vertical farming also grows food organically since no pesticides will be required as there are no pests to damage the crops. Right now it's capturing renewed attention from the agriculture industry and investors. The global vertical farming market size was valued at USD 2. Greengro has vertical grow systems appropriate for both large commercial enterprises and home vertical growing enthusiasts. Vertical farming plays a major role is supplying the growing population with enough food. First invented in by American geologist Gilbert Ellis Bailey, the initial concept of vertical farming was rather understood as a sort of rooftop farming. Say goodbye to seasonal crops. This will save you some initial cost of establishing such a facility. Best Books On Vertical Farming.
Wild Crop Relatives: Genomic and Breeding Resources
Vertical farming at home
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Masters of magic: using marginal lands for growing industrial crops
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Knotwood, the branch base inside the tree stem, which is undesirable in the processing of wood, constitutes an abundantly available biomass residue that is of no commercial value and remains underutilized. However, knotwood, as a rich source of various bioactive molecules, has significant importance for utilization as a renewable feedstock for the production of high-value chemicals.
In the charts we see the average agricultural yield of particular crops over the long-term in the United Kingdom, from onwards. In the first chart, we have plotted cereal crops wheat, barley and oats. Overall, we see that improvements in cereal yields from the 19th century into the first half of the 20th century were relatively slow— by the s, yields were typically in the range of Productivity gains between the s and s was rapid, growing fold over this period.
Honorable Daniel J Evans. Summary of Two Studies of. Gulf Energy and Minerals.