There is three basic material you need to manufacture textile Thread, Yarn and Fiber. A Fiber is the basic raw material to produce yarn or thread. A textile Fiber could be natural or synthetic man-made. It is a silk fabric specially produced only in Japan but recently the reverse trend of importing this from China and Korea is increasing. The basic principle of knitting is that a single yarn which is formed into interlocking loops with the help of hooked needles. The loops may be closely or loosely constructed.
Dear readers! Our articles talk about typical ways to solve the issue of renting industrial premises, but each case is unique.
If you want to know how to solve your particular problem, please contact the online consultant form on the right or call the numbers on the website. It is fast and free!
Looking for other ways to read this?VIDEO ON THE TOPIC: RODSTOW Rod Holder & Fishing Tackle Storage System
Fishing is a prehistoric practice dating back at least 40, years. Since the 16th century, fishing vessels have been able to cross oceans in pursuit of fish, and since the 19th century it has been possible to use larger vessels and in some cases process the fish on board. Fish are normally caught in the wild.
Techniques for catching fish include hand gathering , spearing , netting , angling and trapping. The term fishing may be applied to catching other aquatic animals such as shellfish , cephalopods , crustaceans and echinoderms. The term is not usually applied to catching aquatic mammals , such as whales , where the term whaling is more appropriate, or to farmed fish. In addition to providing food, modern fishing is also a recreational sport.
According to FAO statistics, the total number of fishermen and fish farmers is estimated to be 38 million. Fisheries and aquaculture provide direct and indirect employment to over million people. Fishing is an ancient practice that dates back at least to the Upper Paleolithic period which began about 40, years ago. During this period, most people lived a hunter-gatherer lifestyle and were, of necessity, constantly on the move.
However, where there are early examples of permanent settlements though not necessarily permanently occupied such as those at Lepenski Vir , they are almost always associated with fishing as a major source of food. Spearfishing with barbed poles harpoons was widespread in palaeolithic times. The Neolithic culture and technology spread worldwide between 4, and 8, years ago.
With the new technologies of farming and pottery came basic forms of the main fishing methods that are still used today. From to years ago, Native Americans of the California coast were known to engage in fishing with gorge hook and line tackle. Copper harpoons were known to the seafaring Harappans  well into antiquity. The ancient river Nile was full of fish; fresh and dried fish were a staple food for much of the population. Simple reed boats served for fishing.
Woven nets, weir baskets made from willow branches, harpoons and hook and line the hooks having a length of between eight millimetres and eighteen centimetres were all being used. By the 12th dynasty , metal hooks with barbs were being used. As is fairly common today, the fish were clubbed to death after capture. Nile perch , catfish and eels were among the most important fish.
Some representations hint at fishing being pursued as a pastime. There are numerous references to fishing in ancient literature; in most cases, however, the descriptions of nets and fishing-gear do not go into detail, and the equipment is described in general terms. An early example from the Bible in Job Canst thou fill his skin with barbed irons? Unlike in Minoan culture,  fishing scenes are rarely represented in ancient Greek culture, a reflection of the low social status of fishing.
In the water below there is a rounded object of the same material with an opening on the top. This has been identified as a fish-cage used for keeping live fish, or as a fish-trap. It is clearly not a net. This object is currently in the Museum of Fine Arts, Boston. Oppian of Corycus , a Greek author wrote a major treatise on sea fishing, the Halieulica or Halieutika , composed between and This is the earliest such work to have survived intact to the modern day.
Oppian describes various means of fishing including the use of nets cast from boats, scoop nets held open by a hoop, spears and tridents, and various traps "which work while their masters sleep". Oppian's description of fishing with a "motionless" net is also very interesting:. The Greek historian Polybius ca BC— BC , in his Histories , describes hunting for swordfish by using a harpoon with a barbed and detachable head.
Pictorial evidence of Roman fishing comes from mosaics which show fishing from boats with rod and line as well as nets. Various species such as conger , lobster , sea urchin , octopus and cuttlefish are illustrated. He would fight against the murmillo , who carried a short sword and a helmet with the image of a fish on the front. The Greco-Roman sea god Neptune is depicted as wielding a fishing trident.
In India, the Pandyas , a classical Dravidian Tamil kingdom, were known for the pearl fishery as early as the 1st century BC.
Their seaport Tuticorin was known for deep sea pearl fishing. The paravas , a Tamil caste centred in Tuticorin, developed a rich community because of their pearl trade, navigation knowledge and fisheries.
The Moche people of ancient Peru depicted fisherman in their ceramics. From ancient representations and literature it is clear that fishing boats were typically small, lacking a mast or sail, and were only used close to the shore.
In traditional Chinese history, history begins with three semi-mystical and legendary individuals who taught the Chinese the arts of civilization around — BC: of these Fuxi was reputed to be the inventor of writing, hunting, trapping, and fishing. Relief of fishermen collecting their catch from Mereruka's tomb, 6th dynasty. Moche fisherman. Larco Museum Collection Lima, Peru. Gillnets existed in ancient times as archaeological evidence from the Middle East demonstrates.
This allowed the net to suspend straight up and down in the water. Each net would be suspended either from shore or between two boats. Native fishers in the Pacific Northwest, Canada, and Alaska still commonly use gillnets in their fisheries for salmon and steelhead. Both drift gillnets and setnets also have been widely adapted in cultures around the world. The antiquity of gillnet technology is documented by a number of sources from many countries and cultures.
Japanese records trace fisheries exploitation, including gillnetting, for over 3, years. Many relevant details are available concerning the Edo period — Nowadays Gillnets are not used in modern fisheries due to the new regulations and laws put on the commercial fishing industry.
The Gillnets would not only kill targeted fish but also harm other unintended inhabitants of the surrounding area, also known as bycatch. One of the world's longest lasting trade histories is the trade of dry cod from the Lofoten area to the southern parts of Europe , Italy , Spain and Portugal. The trade in cod started during the Viking period or before, has been going on for more than years and is still important. Cod has been an important economic commodity in an international market since the Viking period around AD.
Norwegians used dried cod during their travels and soon a dried cod market developed in southern Europe. This market has lasted for more than years, passing through periods of Black Death , wars and other crises and still is an important Norwegian fish trade.
The Basques also played an important role in the cod trade and are believed to have found the Canadian fishing banks in the 16th century. The North American east coast developed in part due to the vast amount of cod, and many cities in the New England area spawned near cod fishing grounds.
Apart from the long history this particular trade also differs from most other trade of fish by the location of the fishing grounds, far from large populations and without any domestic market.
The large cod fisheries along the coast of North Norway and in particular close to the Lofoten islands have been developed almost uniquely for export , depending on sea transport of stockfish over large distances.
The trade operations and the sea transport were by the end of the 14th century taken over by the Hanseatic League , Bergen being the most important port of trade. William Pitt the Elder , criticizing the Treaty of Paris in Parliament , claimed that cod was "British gold"; and that it was folly to restore Newfoundland fishing rights to the French.
In the 17th and 18th centuries, the New World, especially in Massachusetts and Newfoundland, cod became a major commodity, forming trade networks and cross-cultural exchanges.
In the 15th century, the Nut developed a type of seagoing herring drifter that became a blueprint for European fishing boats. This was the Herring Buss , used by Dutch herring fishermen until the early 19th centuries. The ship type buss has a long history.
The first herring buss was probably built in Hoorn around The last one was built in Vlaardingen in The ship was about 20 metres long and displaced between 60 and tons. It was a massive round- bilged keel ship with a bluff bow and stern , the latter relatively high, and with a gallery.
The busses used long drifting gill nets to catch the herring. The nets would be retrieved at night and the crews of eighteen to thirty men  would set to gibbing , salting and barrelling the catch on the broad deck.
The ships sailed in fleets of to ships  to the Dogger Bank fishing grounds and the Shetland isles. They were usually escorted by naval vessels, because the English considered they were "poaching". The fleet would stay at sea for weeks at a time. The catch would sometimes be transferred to special ships called ventjagers , and taken home while the fleet would still be at sea the picture shows a ventjager in the distance.
During the 17th century, the British developed the dogger , an early type of sailing trawler or longliner , which commonly operated in the North Sea. The dogger takes its name from the Dutch word dogger , meaning a fishing vessel which tows a trawl. Dutch trawling boats were common in the North Sea, and the word dogger was given to the area where they often fished, which became known as the Dogger Bank. Doggers were slow but sturdy, capable of fishing in the rough conditions of the North Sea.
They could carry a tonne of bait, three tonnes of salt, half a tonne each of food and firewood for the crew, and return with six tonnes of fish.
An anchor would have allowed extended periods fishing in the same spot, in waters up to 18 metres deep. The dogger would also have carried a small open boat for maintaining lines and rowing ashore. A precursor to the dory type was the early French bateau type, a flat bottom boat with straight sides used as early as on the Saint Lawrence River.
Anecdotal evidence exists of much older precursors throughout Europe. England, France, Italy, and Belgium have small boats from medieval periods that could reasonably be construed as predecessors of the Dory. Dories appeared in New England fishing towns sometime after the early 18th century. Lightweight and versatile, with high sides, a flat bottom and sharp bows, they were easy and cheap to build.
The Banks dories appeared in the s. They were designed to be carried on mother ships and used for fishing cod at the Grand Banks. The British dogger was an early type of sailing trawler from the 17th century, but the modern fishing trawler was developed in the 19th century, at the English fishing port of Brixham.
Clothing and Finished Textile Products. Accidents in Clothing Manufacture A. Occupational diseases. In general, the processes involved in the production of clothing and other finished textile products have changed little since the inception of the industry.
Progress on wearable triboelectric nanogenerators in shapes of fiber, yarn, and textile
Not a MyNAP member yet? Register for a free account to start saving and receiving special member only perks. Below is the uncorrected machine-read text of this chapter, intended to provide our own search engines and external engines with highly rich, chapter-representative searchable text of each book. The most successful fishing methods of a given region are those that have stood the test of time. This chapter will describe some of the traditional fishing meth- ods used around the world and consider their advantages and dis- advantages. Each method shows a continuum of development with evolution resulting from modernizing factors. Traditional fishing arts in various stages of modernization could be transferred and applied in new regions with the technical level appropriate for the local conditions.
Table of Contents
Whether you enjoy your textile hung on the wall, thrown over furniture, stored as an heirloom for your children, or worn until it falls into tatters, you need only some common sense to look after it properly. This section will be useful to all owners, and particularly to casual collectors who want to take care of their textile in the least expensive, most convenient way possible. The safest way to remove dirt from a textile is to use a vacuum and a piece of mesh or window screen. Lay the cloth on a flat surface, and place the mesh or screen over the part you want to vacuum. Set the suction very low, attach the pipe extension to the hose, and gently vacuum dirt off the textile through the mesh. The mesh prevents the cloth from being sucked into the vacuum cleaner. If you have further questions, please contact us.
Alpha Textiles. Market Segments. Alphas can also be used for applying masks or to lay down colours and materials in the shape of an Alpha. Texitile industry is the mechanical facility that convert filament, fibre or yarn that can be made into fablic or cloth and the resulting material. If the terms of trade are established as 1 apple for 4 oranges, then: there are no incentives for Beta to engage in international specialization and trade with Alpha. Unchanged for over years, our authentic Peacoats continue that tradition with all the practicality, warmth and timeless style of the original. Alpha Industries is an American clothing manufacturer founded in in Knoxville, Tennessee and specialized in American military style and fashion apparel.
History of fishing
Flat storage is ideal for most textiles because it provides support for the entire textile, thus freeing the textile fibres from the stress of supporting their own weight. When flat storage is enclosed, it also protects the artifact from water damage, dust, and light. When storing textiles flat, it is important to keep folding to a minimum. Consequently, flat storage occupies more space than other storage methods, so it may be necessary to reserve flat storage for selected pieces: very fragile items; heavily decorated textiles, such as beaded dresses; and garments with weak shoulder seams, made from stretchy knits, or those cut on the bias.
Not a MyNAP member yet? Register for a free account to start saving and receiving special member only perks. Materials as a field is most commonly represented by ceramics, metals, and polymers. While noted improvements have taken place in the area of ceramics and metals, it is the field of polymers that has experienced an explosion in progress. Polymers have gone from being cheap substitutes for natural products to providing high-quality options for a wide variety of applications. Further advances and breakthroughs supporting the economy can be expected in the coming years. Polymers are derived from petroleum, and their low cost has its roots in the abundance of the feedstock, in the ingenuity of the chemical engineers who devised the processes of manufacture, and in the economies of scale that have come with increased usage. Less than 5 percent of the petroleum barrel is used for polymers, and thus petroleum is likely to remain as the principal raw material for the indefinite future. Polymers constitute a high-value-added part of the petroleum customer base and have led to increasing international competition in the manufacture of commodity materials as well as engineering thermoplastics and specialty polymers. Polymers are now produced in great quantity and variety. Polymers are used as film packaging, solid molded forms for automobile body parts and TV cabinets, composites for golf clubs and aircraft parts airframe as well as interior , foams for coffee cups and refrigerator insulation, fibers for clothing and carpets, adhesives for attaching anything to anything, rubber for tires and tubing, paints and other coatings to beautify and prolong the life of other materials, and a myriad of other uses.
Watch more videos. Innovation and business centre Mektory has m2 of space for helping to reach your goals in innovation and business development. Tallinn University of Technology, the only technological university in Estonia, is the flagship of Estonian engineering and technology education. Here the synergy between different fields technological, natural, exact, social and health sciences is created and new ideas are born. Recently the research article "A method for producing conductive graphene biopolymer nanofibrous fabrics by exploitation of an ionic liquid dispersant in electrospinning" written by the researchers of Tallinn University of Technology was published in a leading peer-reviewed journal Carbon. The article introduces nanofibers, a material produced by the electrospinning device at the Laboratory of Polymers and Textile Technology in Tallinn University of Technology, and their expanding range of applications. It is not possible to produce fibers with a diameter smaller than a micrometer by using conventional fiber spinning methods. Therefore, electrospinning technology is introduced, by which nanofibers are created by applying high voltage to polymer solution. The beginning of the 20th century can be considered to be the starting point of electrospinning as a scientific discipline, the quest for industrial applications started 50 years ago.
Annabelle Filer, of the material resource SCIN, presents a selection of new materials that includes a textile from the root systems of plants. The background Diana Scherer explores the relationship between man versus the environment and his desire to control nature. The material In the work Harvest, the natural network of the root system turns into an artificial textile. Scherer looks at the root system as if it were yarn or thread, working with wheat, due to its fast-growing root system. As the roots grow on to underground templates they weave or braid themselves into patterns that become the material. The 3D-printed bio plastic template dictates the form; the inspiration for these patterns comes from the geometric structures of cells, snowflakes and shells. Scherer works with biological processes and intervenes both in an intuitive and scientific way in order to control the course of the creation. Seed, soil and water are the only ingredients necessary for the process. When the roots have grown into the desired pattern, Scherer harvests the crop, cuts the wheat down and dries the root structure. The photographs she takes of the resulting textiles are an integral part of her working process, but she also preserves the actual materials.
Refine your search. Find out about this company.
Account Options Sign in. Federal Register , Volume 8, Issues
Thank you for visiting nature. You are using a browser version with limited support for CSS. To obtain the best experience, we recommend you use a more up to date browser or turn off compatibility mode in Internet Explorer.
Fishing is a prehistoric practice dating back at least 40, years. Since the 16th century, fishing vessels have been able to cross oceans in pursuit of fish, and since the 19th century it has been possible to use larger vessels and in some cases process the fish on board.