Revision This is a preview of the paper, limited to some initial content. Full access requires DieselNet subscription. Please log in to view the complete version of this paper.
Dear readers! Our articles talk about typical ways to solve the issue of renting industrial premises, but each case is unique.
If you want to know how to solve your particular problem, please contact the online consultant form on the right or call the numbers on the website. It is fast and free!
- TWC Three-way Catalysts
- Storing energy in hydrogen 20 times more effective using platinum-nickel catalyst
- HPE StoreOnce Catalyst Plug-in for Veritas NetBackup and Backup Exec
- Lean NOx Catalyst
- Storing energy in hydrogen 20 times more effective using platinum-nickel catalyst
- Liquid metal catalyst solidifies CO2 for safe storage
- Login using
- Diesel Oxidation Catalyst
TWC Three-way CatalystsVIDEO ON THE TOPIC: Ray Gorte: Oxygen storage capacity in 3 way automotive catalysts (1999tristates spring symposium)
Help us improve our products. Sign up to take part. A Nature Research Journal. A major roadblock in realizing large-scale production of hydrogen via electrochemical water splitting is the cost and inefficiency of current catalysts for the oxygen evolution reaction OER.
Computational research has driven important developments in understanding and designing heterogeneous OER catalysts using linear scaling relationships derived from computed binding energies. Herein, we interrogate 17 of the most active molecular OER catalysts, based on different transition metals Ru, Mn, Fe, Co, Ni, and Cu , and show they obey similar scaling relations to those established for heterogeneous systems.
However, we find that the conventional OER descriptor underestimates the activity for very active OER complexes as the standard approach neglects a crucial one-electron oxidation that many molecular catalysts undergo prior to O—O bond formation.
Reducing anthropogenic CO 2 emissions is an urgent challenge facing civilization in the 21st century 1. Solar and wind energy are attractive carbon-free energy sources that could supply energy demand sustainably, but an important difficulty with reliance on these energy sources is their inherent intermittency and localized energy input. These two issues could be addressed by storing the excess energy in the form of chemical bonds, such as H 2 , formed via electrochemical water splitting in an electrolyzer 2.
The hydrogen gas liberated at the cathode could then be stored, and eventually combined with oxygen in a fuel cell, providing an entirely renewable and clean energy supply with water as the only reaction product.
Hydrogen produced via this method could also be utilized for the reduction of anthropogenic CO 2 to produce chemical feedstocks and hydrocarbon fuels which are easier to transport than H 2 3 , 4. The bottleneck reaction in water splitting is the so-called oxygen evolution reaction OER , occurring at the anode of the electrolyzer Eq. The OER process typically occurs via four elementary steps involving different reaction intermediates and the formation of an O—O bond, which is eventually released as molecular oxygen.
The two primary pathways proposed for the O—O bond formation are the water nucleophilic attack WNA and the interaction of two metal-oxo entities I2M , as depicted in Fig. Both reaction paths begin with two proton electron transfer PET events 10 , giving rise to a metal-oxo intermediate. In the case of WNA, the metal-oxo species subsequently undergoes the nucleophilic attack of a solvent water molecule and a further PET to generate the O—O bond, whereas in the I2M mechanism the O—O bond formation involves the coupling of two separate metal-oxo moieties.
Particularly, the Gibbs energy change associated with each elementary step can be calculated as in Eqs. From the relative Gibbs energies in Eqs. From this OER scaling relation, the following important implications emerged. In fact, this descriptor has been successfully applied to rationalize the activity of a wide variety of metal oxide and single-atom electrocatalysts, wherein the most active ones exhibit a descriptor which is close to the optimal value predicted by the scaling relations, i.
Recent theoretical studies have reported OER scaling relations for a few model molecular systems bearing a corrole, porphyrin ligands, and functionalized graphitic materials 15 , 27 , 28 , but the generalization of these relations to catalysts featuring different metals and ligand scaffolds, as well as the applicability of the OER descriptor, is yet to be demonstrated.
Herein we confirm the existence of universal scaling relations for a wide variety of well-established molecular OER systems. This investigation is prompted by the superior performance of certain homogeneous catalysts for which turnover frequency values TOFs of 2—3 orders of magnitude higher than the best heterogeneous systems have been reported 29 , 30 , To demonstrate the robustness of the established scaling relations, we have exhaustively interrogated 17 selected molecular OER catalysts featuring a wide variety of metals and ligands Fig.
For catalysts with two potential active sites, only one of them was considered for simplicity. In selecting catalysts, we considered only those exhibiting a well-defined and well-established structure.
More complex and unique systems with multimetallic centers were also discarded due to the multiple distinct valence states and active sites which would have to be considered prior to oxygen evolution Molecular OER catalysts investigated in this work, taken from refs.
Chemical structures correspond to the vacancy intermediate in the OER mechanisms depicted in Fig. As a result, we predict molecular catalysts enabling this extra oxidation to potentially behave as ideal OER catalysts, exhibiting zero theoretical overpotential. Further, we demonstrate that the activity of such highly active systems is underestimated by the conventional OER descriptor and propose a new descriptor to screen and narrow down the search of promising molecular catalysts.
Finally, we use all this knowledge to establish fundamental principles for the rational design of ideal OER catalysts to advance the development of commercial water electrolyzers. As shown in Fig. This confirms that the same linear scaling relation observed in metal and metal oxide systems applies to any molecular OER catalyst.
Also noteworthy is the robustness of this relation, which is derived from complexes showcasing many distinct ligands and metal centers 29 , 30 , 31 , 37 , 38 , 39 , 40 , 41 , 42 , 43 , 44 , 45 , 46 , In addition, the constraint imposed by the OER scaling implies that both homogeneous and heterogeneous catalysts are subject to a minimum overpotential of ca.
We then examined in detail the data presented in Fig. This effect is conveyed in Supplementary Fig. While this effect might not be decisive—being within our reported mean absolute error MAE of the chosen functional—we conclude that H-bonding can be leveraged to improve the scaling, and therefore, it should be considered as an important feature in the design and fine-tuning of molecular OER catalysts.
We note that molecular dynamics simulations including explicit solvation would allow for a more complete characterization of the significance of intramolecular H-bonds on the molecular OER scaling. This methodology has been used to explain the mediation of O—O bond formation by solvent structures for the Ru V —oxo intermediate of Ru-7 elsewhere 49 , Applying this level of analysis to all of our investigated catalysts and OER intermediates is, however, extremely computationally demanding.
Such investigations, however, are outside the scope of this work, which is attempting to establishing and generalizing OER-scaling relations for molecular catalysts and to set the guidelines for the accelerated discovery of high-performance OER catalysts using methods that are computationally efficient and less time consuming. By plotting this descriptor against the computed theoretical overpotential using in Eqs.
This representation also allows us to categorize molecular catalysts based on the PLS. On the other hand, catalysts found on the right leg of the volcano exhibit a high descriptor value, which dictates the OER overpotential. The volcano plot obtained for the 17 molecular catalysts is shown in Fig. This contrasts starkly with the reported experimental data, which have proven some of the complexes to be among the best molecular OER catalysts.
In the following, however, we demonstrate that this unsuspected behavior is caused by an oversimplification of the reaction mechanism, typically assumed in most theoretical studies of heterogeneous OER catalysts.
Notably, some metals, such as Ru, Mn, or Fe, have been experimentally proven to undergo an additional one-electron transfer ET before O—O bond formation 52 , 53 , 54 , The Gibbs energy change associated with this step, and the subsequent O—O bond formation via a PET event, are given by. The red shaded area indicates the optimal range for the conventional OER descriptor. Note, the same scale and the left leg of the volcano in a has been used for comparability.
The dotted line in b is drawn to guide the eye towards an ideal OER catalyst. The potential limiting step on each side of the two volcano plots is indicated in red text. Interestingly, upon accounting for the additional ET in the M IV -oxo intermediates, we observed that catalysts which undergo this step exhibit an improved theoretical overpotential, deviating significantly from the lines defined by the volcano in Fig.
The result of adopting this new descriptor can be appreciated in the volcano plot depicted in Fig. Notably, DFT calculations predict Ru-1—3 , Ru-7 , and Ru-9 to exhibit the lowest theoretical overpotential amongst the 17 complexes investigated in this work, which agrees with the highest experimental TOFs reported for these complexes see Supplementary Fig. It is important to note that the active species for Ru-9 has come under scrutiny 56 , but our calculations predict that this catalyst would be a relatively active OER catalyst.
Another important observation from Fig. In fact, such a catalyst with the perfect distribution of the energy levels would present a Gibbs energy of only 1. Three-dimensional volcano representations including.
The PLS on each region of the volcano plots is indicated. The difference between the 3D volcanos derived for the catalysts following the conventional 4-PET mechanism Fig. The shape of the volcano featuring the new OER descriptor can be rationalized by considering the equations that determine the boundaries separating the distinct regions see Supplementary Fig. This new volcano provides also a comprehensive illustration of the observed superior performance of Ru-based OER catalysts compared with other metal-based catalysts.
Furthermore, it sets up a general guideline for the future design of complexes as cost-effective and high-performance OER catalysts, given the propensity of some earth-abundant metals e. Mn and Fe to stabilize high-valent oxo intermediates 58 , 59 , Our investigations have thus far assumed a WNA mechanism.
However, it is important to note that even if the I2M pathway—or indeed any other mechanism—was found to be more favorable, it would only result in a better-predicted activity. Hence, the scaling relations and reaction descriptors established in this work are perfectly valid and relevant, since they provide an upper limit of the OER activity for a given molecular catalyst, requiring only a few DFT calculations.
Besides, when comparing the WNA and I2M mechanisms, one should bear in mind that the preference for one or the other pathway will be strongly dependent on the reaction conditions, something that can be overlooked. In particular, the O—O bond formation via the WNA mechanism involves a PET step, and therefore, the Gibbs energy associated with this process will be reduced as potential increases according to Eq.
On the contrary, the formation of the M—O—O—M dimer through the I2M mechanism is a chemical step, implying that the Gibbs energy with respect to the monomer will remain invariant with the applied bias.
To illustrate this, we have analyzed this mechanism for Ru-1 , 2 , and 3 for which the corresponding Ru V -oxo species has been kinetically confirmed to dimerize leading to the complex Ru IV —OO—Ru IV 29 , Furthermore, anchoring Ru-1 on indium tin oxide has also been shown to increase the observed overpotential, presumably due to a change in mechanism from I2M to the WNA It should be noted that the optimized geometries of the complexes as single molecules or dimers is octahedral, despite the fact that the favorable activity of some Ru catalysts have been explained by their ability to dynamically access a seven-coordinated intermediate Blue lines represent the I2M mechanism while the pale orange lines represent the conventional WNA mechanism.
As can be observed from Fig. At more oxidizing potentials, however, simulations predict the WNA pathway to become accessible. Hence, the I2M mechanism is expected to have an important contribution to the observed OER activity at low to moderate potentials or mild chemical oxidants , whereas the WNA is expected to compete at strong oxidizing conditions.
The results presented in Supplementary Table 3 indeed suggest that the degree of exergonicity of this dimerization step is the deciding factor in the improved kinetics of Ru-1 with respect to Ru-2 and 3. The importance of circumventing the overpotential wall through O—O-based methods, such as the I2M mechanism has been discussed previously We emphasize that a complete quantum chemical characterization of the underlying mechanism for catalysts is to remain vital due to the need for increased accuracy in predicting the OER activity and in forming an in-depth understanding of this complex reaction.
We also note that catalysts which evolve O 2 through more intricate pathways could exhibit lower overpotentials than predicted by our analysis, although the extrapolation of this knowledge to the design of novel molecular catalysts is not straightforward.
Instead, our work sets the foundations for the fast and efficient screening of molecular OER catalysts and posits that catalysts, which are close to the top of volcano as seen in Fig. This approach, yet to be exploited in homogeneous catalysis, allows for the exploration of a substantial portion of the vast potential chemical space, which would be otherwise intractable, and hence, it is expected to lead to the discovery of novel catalysts with an improved performance in a reasonable time.
With all this knowledge, in the following we establish and discuss a series of catalyst design principles to accelerate the discovery of novel molecular systems based on earth-abundant elements exhibiting an ideal OER activity. Firstly, we propose that any high-throughput search should focus on transition metal complexes which can stabilize high oxidation states and thereby undergo the additional ET step to hurdle the OER overpotential wall.
Although a complete characterization of the activity of these complexes would require the modeling of many more intermediates, the approach presented herein allows for the rapidly accelerated screening of molecular catalysts using thermodynamic OER descriptors. Special attention, however, should be paid when predicting the activity of catalysts with a low conventional OER descriptor—those lying on the left leg of the volcano in Fig.
Future design of highly active molecular OER catalysts may also benefit from the knowledge available in the heterogeneous catalysis community, where OER materials with reduced overpotentials have been successfully predicted by means of DFT calculations and scaling relations.
An instructive example is the recent computer-aided design of a ternary Co, Fe, and W oxide material which exhibited a record low overpotential in alkaline electrolyte By analogy, in molecular systems, we envisage that a similar effect could be achieved by altering the transition metal center to produce a favorable binding energy.
The results will be published on November 15th in the journal Science , according to Phys. Continue reading original article. Date goes here- Storing energy isn't the easiest thing to do. Lithium-ion batteries are a relatively expensive and bulky - and currently, necessary way - to carry electric power in ground- and flying vehicles. However, powering with hydrogen requires an expensive catalyst to drive the process. While hydrogen fuel cell flight and cars may well be the future, the researchers have bigger dreams for the technology.
Storing energy in hydrogen 20 times more effective using platinum-nickel catalyst
Account Options Sign in. My library Help Advanced Book Search. Applied Industrial Catalysis. Elsevier , Dec 2, - Science - pages. Applied Industrial Catalysis, Volume 1 provides a practical description of catalysis by industrial scientists.
HPE StoreOnce Catalyst Plug-in for Veritas NetBackup and Backup Exec
This section is available in the following languages: English. Platinum, Palladium, Rhodium that enables it to significantly outperform conventional three-way conversion catalysts in the oxidation of hydrocarbons HC and carbon monoxide CO. This state-of-the-art platform technology uses BASF's patented, segregated washcoat technology, which precisely places the precious metals within the washcoat, resulting in several important benefits:. The benefits include:.
This is a division of application Ser. The present invention relates to gas reaction catalysts, and in particular to catalysts for the recombination of the oxyhydrogen gas created by lead-acid storage batteries into water, the catalyst consisting essentially of a catalyst carrier material and an active metallic catalyst material of the platinum group arranged in or on the carrier material. The invention concerns itself with a method of producing such a catalyst and a device for the application of such catalysts in combination with storage batteries in the place of the normally used battery plug, in accordance with U. Catalysts which are used for the control or acceleration of the speed of a chemical reaction, without being part of the end product obtained by the reaction, consist normally of a catalyst carrier material which is catalytically indifferent and of the catalyst material itself which is applied to the carrier or otherwise arranged on the carrier surface. Because the catalytic reaction takes place within a very thin surface layer of the catalyst material, and because the catalytic reaction is of a surface-chemical nature, a primary desire in the production of this type of catalyst is to obtain a maximum degree of dispersity of the catalyst material so as to obtain the greatest possible reaction surface. With a given chemical composition of the catalyst material itself, any improvement in the catalytic activity therefore can only be obtained through improved production and assembly methods which reflect themselves in the physical characteristics of the catalyst surface. For this reason, it has already been suggested to utilize pulverulent or granular carrier materials and similar granular catalyst materials and to thoroughly intermingle these materials. It has also been suggested to use porour carrier grains and to soak the latter with the active catalyst material. It is further known from the prior art to obtain the catalyst layer on the surface of pre-formed grains of the carrier material by precipitation.
Lean NOx Catalyst
Few books currently exist that cover such a wide spectrum of topics. Several technologies to handle a wide spectrum of environmental pollutants are taken into account in numerous chapters. The chapter on biodiversity is clearly related to the conservation issue, while the water pollution subject is tackled by the chapter on water quality monitoring.
Storing energy in hydrogen 20 times more effective using platinum-nickel catalyst
These metrics are regularly updated to reflect usage leading up to the last few days. Citations are the number of other articles citing this article, calculated by Crossref and updated daily. Find more information about Crossref citation counts. The Altmetric Attention Score is a quantitative measure of the attention that a research article has received online. Clicking on the donut icon will load a page at altmetric. Find more information on the Altmetric Attention Score and how the score is calculated. The NSR performance was significantly influenced by the type of oxide supports.
Liquid metal catalyst solidifies CO2 for safe storage
Vehicle exhaust emissions, particularly from diesel cars, are considered to be a significant problem for the environment and human health. Researchers are constantly searching for new inexpensive catalysts with high efficiency at low temperatures and negligible fuel penalties, to meet the challenges of this field. This book will be the first to comprehensively present the current research on this important area. Covering the technology used, from its development in the early s up to the current state-of-the-art technologies and new legislation. Beginning with the fundamental aspects of the process, the discussion will cover the real application standard through to the detailed modelling of full scale catalysts. Scientists, academic and industrial researchers, engineers working in the automotive sector and technicians working on emission control will find this book an invaluable resource. Account Options Sign in. My library Help Advanced Book Search. Lidia Castoldi , Luca Lietti. Royal Society of Chemistry , Jun 13, - Science - pages.
Account Options Sign in. My library Help Advanced Book Search. This book offers an overview of the state of the art in the field of DeNOx catalysis in order to focus novel orientations, new technological developments, from laboratory to industrial scale.
Diesel Oxidation Catalyst
Springer Shop Bolero Ozon. Masakazu Anpo , Prashant V. Over the past few decades, mankind has observed an unprecedented and remarkable growth in industry, resulting in a more prosperous lifestyle for peoples of many countries. In developing countries, however, explosive industrial growth is just now beginning to raise the living standards of the people.
In what is claimed to be a world first, researchers have used a liquid metal catalyst to turn CO2 back into solid coal, an advance with implications for carbon capture and storage. Published in Nature Communications , the research led by RMIT University in Melbourne, Australia is claimed to offer an alternative direction for safely and permanently removing the greenhouse gas from the atmosphere. Technologies for carbon capture and storage CCS involve compressing CO2 into a liquid form, transporting it to a suitable site and injecting it underground but implementation has been hampered by engineering challenges, economic viability and environmental concerns about possible leaks from the storage sites. To convert CO2, the researchers designed a liquid metal catalyst with specific surface properties that made it extremely efficient at conducting electricity while chemically activating the surface.
Bolero Ozon. Adobe Creative Team. This official training guide from Adobe will teach readers all they need to know to create rich interactive experiences with Flash Catalyst CS5, Adobe's exciting new interaction design tool. Using step-by-step instructions in projects that progressively build skills, readers of this Classroom in a Book will learn how to prepare and import artwork from applications such as Adobe Photoshop and Fireworks into Catalyst, and then add interactive functionality in a familiar interface and with tools that are intuitive to use.