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Glossary of Forging TermsVIDEO ON THE TOPIC: Visit China Factory for flange .forging ,ring in dingxiang -Shanxi Liyang Forging Co.,ltd
Air-lift hammer — A type of gravity-drop hammer in which the ram is raised for each stroke by an air cylinder. Because the length of stroke can be controlled, ram velocity and therefore the energy delivered to the workpiece can be varied. See also Drop Hammer and Gravity Hammer.
Aircraft quality — Denotes stock of sufficient quality to be forged into highly stressed parts for aircraft or other critical applications. Such materials are of extremely high quality, requiring closely controlled, restrictive practices in their manufacture in order that they may pass rigid requirements, such as magnetic particle inspection.
Alloy steel forging — One made from a steel containing additional alloying elements other than carbon e. As forged — The condition of a forging as it comes out of the finisher cavity without any subsequent operations.
Auxiliary operations — Additional processing steps performed on forgings to obtain properties, such as surface conditions or shapes, not obtained in the regular processing operation. Axial rolls — In ring rolling, vertically displaceable, tapered rolls, mounted in a horizontally displaceable frame opposite from but on the same centerline as the main roll and rolling mandrel. The axial rolls control the ring height during the rolling process. Axisymmetric forging — A forging where metal flow, during deformation, is predominately in a direction away from a common axis in a radial direction.
Backward extrusion — Forcing metal to flow in a direction opposite to the motion of a punch or die. Bar — A section hot rolled from a billet to a form, such as round, hexagonal, octagonal, square, or rectangular, with sharp or rounded corners or edges, with a cross-sectional area of less than 16 sq in.
Bar end — See End Loss. Barreling — Convexity of the surfaces of cylindrical or conical bodies, often produced unintentionally during upsetting or as a natural consequence during compression testing. See also Compression Test. Bend or twist defect — Distortion similar to warpage, but resulting from different causes; generally caused in the forging or trimming operations.
When the distortion is along the length of the part, it is called "bend"; when across the width, it is called "twist. Bender — A die impression, tool, or mechanical device designed to bend forging stock to conform to the general configuration of die impressions subsequently to be used.
Bending — A preliminary forging operation to give the piece approximately the correct shape for subsequent forming. Billet — A semifinished, cogged, hot-rolled, or continuous-cast metal product of uniform section, usually rectangular with radiused corners. Billets are relatively larger than bars. See Bloom. Bite — Amount of the die in contact with the workpiece throughout one entire forging reduction, e. Blank — Raw material or forging stock also called a "slug" or "multiple" from which a forging is made.
Blast cleaning — A process for cleaning or finishing metal objects by use of an air jet or centrifugal wheel that propels abrasive particles grit, sand, or shot against the surfaces of the workpiece at high velocity. Block — The forging operation in which metal is progressively formed to general desired shape and contour by means of an impression die used when only one block operation is scheduled. Block and finish — The forging operation in which the part to be forged is blocked and finished in one heat through the use of a die having both a block impression and a finish impression in the same die.
This also covers the case where two tools mounted in the same machine are used, as in the case of aircraft pistons. Only one heat is involved for both operations. Block, first and second — Blocking operation performed in a die having two blocking cavities in the same die; the part being forged is successively blocked in each impression all in one heat. As many as three blocker dies are sometimes needed for some forgings and up to three operations are sometimes required in each die.
Block, first, second, and finish — The forging operation in which the part to be forged is passed in progressive order through three tools mounted in one forging machine; only one heat is involved for all three operations. Blocker impression — The forging die impression which gives the forging its general shape, but omits any details that might restrict the metal flow; corners are well rounded.
The primary purpose of the blocker is to enable the forming of shapes too complex to be finished after the preliminary operations; it also reduces die wear in the finishing impression. Blocker-type forging — A forging that approximates the general shape of the final part with relatively generous finish allowance and radii. Such forgings are sometimes specified to reduce die costs where only a small number of forgings are desired and the cost of machining each part to its final shape is not exorbitant.
Bloom — A semifinished product of square, rectangular, or even round cross section, hot rolled, or forged. For steel, the width of a bloom is not more than twice the thickness, and the cross sectional area is usually not less than about 36 sq. No invariable rule prevails for distinguishing between blooms and billets; the terms are frequently used interchangeably.
Board hammer — A type of gravity drop hammer where wood boards attached to the ram are raised vertically by action of contrarotating rolls, then released. Energy for forging is obtained by the mass and velocity of the freely falling ram and the attached upper die.
See also Drop Hammer. Bolster plate — A plate to which dies can be fastened; the assembly is secured to the top surface of a press bed.
In press forging, such a plate may also be attached to the ram. Boss — A relatively short protrusion or projection on the surface of a forging, often cylindrical in shape. Breakdown — 1 An initial rolling or drawing operation, or a series of such operations, for reducing an ingot or extruded shape to desired size before the finish reduction. Brinell hardness — The hardness of a metal or part, as represented by the number obtained from the ratio between the load applied on and the spherical area of the impression made by a steel ball forced into the surface of the material tested.
The Brinell Hardness Number BHN is determined by measuring the diameter of the impression using a low power microscope, then matching this diameter with the load on a standard table. Buckling — A bulge, bend, kink, or other wavy condition of the workpiece caused by compressive stresses. See also Compressive Stress. Burning — Permanently damaging a metal or alloy by heating so as to cause either incipient melting or intergranular oxidation. Burr — A thin ridge or roughness left on forgings by cutting operation such as slitting, shearing, trimming, blanking, or sawing.
Buster rougher — An impression employed in a die when considerable metal movement is required and which precedes a blocker cavity and a finisher cavity. Buster preblocking impression — A type of die impression sometimes used to combine preliminary forging operations such as edging and fullering with the blocking operation to eliminate blows.
Carbon steel — Steel containing carbon up to about 1. Cassette — Also known as sub-bolster, die assembly, trim and pierce assembly. Cast proof — Any reproduction of a die cavity in any material, frequently lead, plaster or epoxy, used to confirm the exactness of the cavity.
See Die Proof. Cavity, die — The machined recess in a die that gives the forging its shape. Chamfer — To break or remove sharp edges or corners of forging stock by means of straight angle tool or grinding wheel. Charpy impact test — An impact test in which a specially V-notched specimen is broken by the impact of a falling pendulum. The energy absorbed in fracture is a measure of the impact strength or notch toughness of the sample.
Die blocks too hard for the depth of the die impression have a tendency to check or develop cracks in impression corners. Chop — A die forging defect; metal sheared from a vertical surface and spread by the die over an adjoining horizontal surface. Chucking lug — A lug or boss to the forging so that "on center" machining and forming can be performed with one setting or chucking; this lug is machined or cut away on the finished item. Cleaning — The process of removing scale, oxides, or lubricant—acquired during heating for forging or heat treating—from the surface of the forging.
See also Blasting, Pickling, Tumbling. Close-tolerance forging — One held to closer-than-conventional dimensional tolerances so that little or no machining is required after forging. See also Precision Forging. Closed die forging — The shaping of hot metal completely within the walls or cavities of two dies that come together to enclose the workpiece on all sides. The impression for the forging can be entirely in either die or divided between the top and bottom dies.
Impression-die forging, often used interchangeably with the term closed-die forging, refers to a closed-die operation in which the dies contain a provision for controlling the flow of excess material, or flash, that is generated. By contrast, in flashless forging, the material is deformed in a cavity that allows little or no escape of excess material.
See Impression Die Forging. Closing-in — The forging operation that locally reduces diameters in hollow forgings. Closure, die — A term frequently used to mean variations in thickness of a forging.
Cogging — The reducing operation in which an ingot is worked into a billet by the use of a forging hammer or a forging press. Coining — 1 A post-forging process—on hot or cold parts—used to attain closer tolerances or improved surfaces. Coining dies — Dies in which the coining or sizing operation is performed.
Cold-coined forging — A forging that has been restruck cold in order to hold closer face distance tolerances, sharpen corners or outlines, reduce section thickness, flatten some particular surface, or, in non-heat-treatable alloys, increase hardness. Cold forging — Various forging processes conducted at or near ambient temperatures to produce metal components to close tolerances and net shape.
These include bending, cold drawing, cold heading, coining, extrusion forward or backward , punching, thread rolling and others. Cold heading — Plastically deforming metal at ambient temperatures to increase the cross-sectional area of the stock either solid bar or tubing at one or more points along the longitudinal axis.
See also Heading and Upsetting. Cold lap — A flaw that results when a workpiece fails to fill the die cavity during the first forging. A seam is formed as subsequent dies force metal over this gap to leave a seam on the workpiece surface.
See also Cold Shut. Cold saw — Mechanical sawing machine used to produce cut pieces prior to the forging operation. Sawing is carried out on the material at ambient temperature. Cold shut — Also known as lap or fold. A defect such as lap that forms whenever metal folds over itself during forging. This can occur where vertical and horizontal surfaces intersect.
Cold trimming — Removing flash or excess metal from the forging in a trimming press when the forging is at room temperature. Cold working — Permanent plastic deformation of a metal at a temperature below its recrystallization point—low enough to produce strain hardening. Usually, but not necessarily, conducted at room temperature. Also referred to as cold forming or cold forging.
Contrast with hot working. Concavity — A concave condition applicable to the width of any flat surface.
We had these anvils independently hardness tested and the test results showed an average inferred hardness of 59HRC on the edges and faces. Trenton Forging is American owned and operated and a leading producer of custom closed-impression die forgings for a wide array of industries. We can drop forge all types of metals include: steel forging, aluminum forging, and copper forging. Machine thread eye bolts are threaded National Course before galvanizing and assembled with hex nuts tapped oversize.
Optimizing machine tools through automation
For over decade,Saideepa Forgings business is focussed on to domestic and export sales of high grade special steel forging products and a variety of complementary materials. Highest attention is being paid to service and technical support,which constitutes an integral part of our activities. The company's product line,engineering design,meta working,Heat Tratment and machine centers supply fully ready to use machined forgings to required dimensions. Our sophisticated in-house facilities with advanced equipment and latest technology produce superior quality products as per the needs. With most advanced designs and manufacturing systems and a comprahensive technical support,we utilize state-of the art equipment and technology to develop the products to help our clients to get success in market place.
15kg Power Hammer
This drive unit is used in metal-forming machinery such as eccentric presses in which the work capacity of the machine is derived from a flywheel. In comparison to spur gearing, the planetary gears used in the compact drives save installation space and have smaller rotating masses. High rotational speeds make it possible to keep the size of the flywheels to a minimum and, when used with Ortlinghaus clutch-brake unit, results in compact drive units with a broad power spectrum. The individual components clutch-brake unit, flywheel with bearings and planetary gearing with output hub are matched to each other in order to suit the characteristics of the machine in a space-saving assembly. These series have proven themselves in thousands of metal-forming machines over the years. According to DIN EN , the relevant safety standards for press engineering, a mechanical restraining device must be present in mechanical presses for repair work and work between the two halves of the tool. The Ortlinghaus linear motion lock from the series is an approved restraining device according to the German employers' liability insurance association.
If you understand your budget and approach equipment purchases as an investment rather than an expense you will get into knifemaking in a way that is enjoyable and sustainable. If you set out on the right foot, knifemaking can be a pursuit that pays for itself. This is your knife making fund - when you purchase equipment and materials the money comes from here, when you sell knives money goes back in here. At first you will be subsidising your knifemaking, and after a short while your knifemaking will probably be paying for itself. Although you might have to send your blades away to be heat treated, you will quickly learn enough to graduate to an intermediate setup without wasting money on the wrong kit. Rhynowet is our sandpaper of choice. For about the same cost as buying wet and dry at the hardware store, this paper lasts nearly three times longer and does a better job.
5000 Ton Press
SACMA founded in , began to design and manufacture cold forging machines just before the world war. The increasing development and substantial growth have brought the name of SACMA to be well known by the world manufacturers of fasteners and special parts. Every day more than SACMA machines are operative through out the world, in hundreds of factories, transforming thousands of tons into high quality fasteners and special parts, used in many different industrial applications. For the industry that mass produces consumable items, like fasteners, the advantage of cold forging is an inevitable consequence for reasons of high strength, tight tolerances, reduction of waste material, competitiveness and productivity.
We are pleased to provide you and new members of your team the following glossary to better understand metal forming presses. Typical press operations and other terms referring to press features and functions are defined below:. The Bed is the stationary portion or "table" of the press to which the bolster is attached. Press Rigidity is crucial to lower press maintenance and increases die life. The friction mechanism used to stop or control the motion of a press, feed or other mechanism. Rated press capacity is the tonnage pressure the slide can safely exert at the bottom of the stroke. Mechanical press capacity is typically based on the bending capacity of the main shaft crank, toggle, or eccentric shaft. It is important to know and understand 1. Energy Curve based on press speeds. Presses should only be used within the designed capacity.
Industrial Machinery and Others
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Series 045 & 046
Komatsu manufactures a wide variety of machine tools and industrial machines, which are indispensable for the production of automobiles, solar cells and semiconductors. Komatsu's transfer machines and machining centers have been delivered to engine production lines of major automakers of the world and have enjoyed their top-class evaluations. Komatsu also offers crankshaft millers for the machining of engine shafts, application-specific grinders, and solar cell and semiconductor manufacturing equipment, which takes advantage of its accumulated expertise in machine tools, to slice silicon ingots. Light sources for leading-edge semiconductor lithography tools that require high resolution. Large presses are used to mold automotive bodies. Komatsu offers a full lineup of AC servo presses to meet the production of automotive parts in all sizes, ranging from large body side panels and hoods to small parts, such as chassis, pillars and bumpers. Komatsu offers two types of large presses, tandem presses for high versatility and transfer presses for high productivity. Small and medium-sized presses place workpieces between the molds and give a large amount of pressing force to mold workpieces into the same shapes of the molds. These presses can be used by the electric appliance, aerospace and construction industries as well as by academia.
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Cold Forging Press
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Space is a dangerous place for humans: Microgravity sets our fluids wandering and weakens muscles, radiation tears through DNA and the harsh vacuum outside is an ever-present threat. But for materials that show incredible strength, transmit information with barely any loss, form enormous crystals or even grow into organs, the harshness of space can be the perfect construction zone. As the cost of spaceflight goes down, more of these materials may become cost-effective to make or study in space.
Forging is a manufacturing process involving the shaping of metal using localized compressive forces. The blows are delivered with a hammer often a power hammer or a die. Forging is often classified according to the temperature at which it is performed: cold forging a type of cold working , warm forging, or hot forging a type of hot working.