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Units storage aggregates, components and parts of bus spare parts

Units storage aggregates, components and parts of bus spare parts

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Global EV Outlook 2019

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An electric vehicle , also called an EV , uses one or more electric motors or traction motors for propulsion. An electric vehicle may be powered through a collector system by electricity from off-vehicle sources, or may be self-contained with a battery , solar panels or an electric generator to convert fuel to electricity.

EVs first came into existence in the midth century, when electricity was among the preferred methods for motor vehicle propulsion, providing a level of comfort and ease of operation that could not be achieved by the gasoline cars of the time.

Modern internal combustion engines have been the dominant propulsion method for motor vehicles for almost years, but electric power has remained commonplace in other vehicle types, such as trains and smaller vehicles of all types. Commonly, the term EV is used to refer to an electric car. In the 21st century, EVs saw a resurgence due to technological developments, and an increased focus on renewable energy.

A great deal of demand for electric vehicles developed and a small core of do-it-yourself DIY engineers began sharing technical details for doing electric vehicle conversions. Government incentives to increase adoptions were introduced, including in the United States and the European Union. American blacksmith and inventor Thomas Davenport built a toy electric locomotive, powered by a primitive electric motor, in In England a patent was granted in for the use of rails as conductors of electric current, and similar American patents were issued to Lilley and Colten in The first mass-produced electric vehicles appeared in America in the early s.

In , "Studebaker Automobile Company" entered the automotive business with electric vehicles, though it also entered the gasoline vehicles market in However, with the advent of cheap assembly line cars by Ford, electric cars fell to the wayside [8].

Due to the limitations of storage batteries at that time, electric cars did not gain much popularity, however electric trains gained immense popularity due to their economies and fast speeds achievable. By the 20th century, electric rail transport became commonplace due to advances in the development of electric locomotives.

Over time their general-purpose commercial use reduced to specialist roles, as platform trucks , forklift trucks , ambulances, [9] tow tractors and urban delivery vehicles, such as the iconic British milk float ; for most of the 20th century, the UK was the world's largest user of electric road vehicles. Electrified trains were used for coal transport, as the motors did not use precious oxygen in the mines.

Switzerland's lack of natural fossil resources forced the rapid electrification of their rail network. One of the earliest rechargeable batteries — the nickel-iron battery — was favored by Edison for use in electric cars. EVs were among the earliest automobiles, and before the preeminence of light, powerful internal combustion engines , electric automobiles held many vehicle land speed and distance records in the early s. They were produced by Baker Electric , Columbia Electric , Detroit Electric , and others, and at one point in history out-sold gasoline-powered vehicles.

In fact, in , 28 percent of the cars on the road in the USA were electric. A number of developments contributed to decline of electric cars.

As roads were improved outside urban areas electric vehicle range could not compete with the ICE. Finally, the initiation of mass production of gasoline-powered vehicles by Henry Ford in reduced significantly the cost of gasoline cars as compared to electric cars. In the s, National City Lines , which was a partnership of General Motors , Firestone , and Standard Oil of California purchased many electric tram networks across the country to dismantle them and replace them with GM buses.

The partnership was convicted of conspiring to monopolize the sale of equipment and supplies to their subsidiary companies, but were acquitted of conspiring to monopolize the provision of transportation services.

The emergence of metal—oxide—semiconductor MOS technology led to the development of modern electric road vehicles. MOSFET power converters allowed operation at much higher switching frequencies, made it easier to drive, reduced power losses, and significantly reduced prices, while single-chip microcontrollers could manage all aspects of the drive control and had the capacity for battery management.

From to GM produced EV1s , of which were made available through three-year leases. The discontinuation has variously been attributed to:. A movie made on the subject in — was titled Who Killed the Electric Car? The film explores the roles of automobile manufacturers , oil industry , the U.

Ford released a number of their Ford Ecostar delivery vans into the market. After public protests, Toyota sold of its RAV EVs to eager buyers; they later sold at over their original forty-thousand-dollar price. During the last few decades, environmental impact of the petroleum-based transportation infrastructure, along with the fear of peak oil , has led to renewed interest in an electric transportation infrastructure.

The carbon footprint and other emissions of electric vehicles varies depending on the fuel and technology used for electricity generation. Vehicles making use of engines working on the principle of combustion can usually only derive their energy from a single or a few sources, usually non-renewable fossil fuels.

A key advantage of hybrid or plug-in electric vehicles is regenerative braking , which recovers kinetic energy, typically lost during friction braking as heat, as electricity restored to the on-board battery. As of early December , the Leaf, with , units sold worldwide, was the world's top-selling highway-capable all-electric car of all time, followed by the Tesla Model S with global deliveries of about , units. Norway is the country with the highest market penetration per capita in the world, with four plug-in electric vehicles per inhabitants in By some estimates electric vehicles sales may constitute almost a third of new-car sales by the end of There are many ways to generate electricity, of varying costs, efficiency and ecological desirability.

See articles on diesel-electric and gasoline-electric hybrid locomotion for information on EVs using also combustion engines. Another form of chemical to electrical conversion is fuel cells , projected for future use. For especially large EVs, such as submarines , the chemical energy of the diesel-electric can be replaced by a nuclear reactor.

The nuclear reactor usually provides heat, which drives a steam turbine , which drives a generator, which is then fed to the propulsion. See Nuclear Power. A few experimental vehicles, such as some cars and a handful of aircraft use solar panels for electricity. These systems are powered from an external generator plant nearly always when stationary , and then disconnected before motion occurs, and the electricity is stored in the vehicle until needed.

Batteries, electric double-layer capacitors and flywheel energy storage are forms of rechargeable on-board rechargeable electricity storage system electrical storage.

By avoiding an intermediate mechanical step, the energy conversion efficiency can be improved over the hybrids already discussed, by avoiding unnecessary energy conversions. Furthermore, electro-chemical batteries conversions are easy to reverse, allowing electrical energy to be stored in chemical form. Lithium ion batteries have higher energy density , longer life span and higher power density than most other practical batteries.

Complicating factors include safety, durability, thermal breakdown and cost. Li-ion batteries should be used within safe temperature and voltage ranges in order to operate safely and efficiently.

Increasing the battery's lifespan decreases effective costs. One technique is to operate a subset of the battery cells at a time and switching these subsets. Lithium-ion batteries' price is constantly decreasing, thus, making electric vehicles more affordable and attractive on the market.

The power of a vehicle's electric motor, as in other vehicles, is measured in kilowatts kW. Energy is lost during the process of converting the electrical energy to mechanical energy. For electric trains, forklift trucks , and some electric cars, DC motors are often used. In some cases, universal motors are used, and then AC or DC may be employed.

In recent production vehicles, various motor types have been implemented, for instance: Induction motors within Tesla Motor vehicles and permanent magnet machines in the Nissan Leaf and Chevrolet Bolt. A plug-in electric vehicle PEV is any motor vehicle that can be recharged from any external source of electricity, such as wall sockets , and the electricity stored in the Rechargeable battery packs drives or contributes to drive the wheels.

PEV is a subcategory of electric vehicles that includes all-electric or battery electric vehicles BEVs , plug-in hybrid vehicles, PHEVs , and electric vehicle conversions of hybrid electric vehicles and conventional internal combustion engine vehicles. Cumulative global sales of highway-capable light-duty pure electric vehicles passed one million units in total, globally, in September A hybrid electric vehicle combines a conventional usually fossil fuel-powered powertrain with some form of electric propulsion.

The Prius nameplate has sold more than 5. EVs are on the road in many functions, including electric cars, electric trolleybuses, electric buses , battery electric buses , electric trucks , electric bicycles , electric motorcycles and scooters , personal transporters , neighborhood electric vehicles , golf carts , milk floats , and forklifts. Off-road vehicles include electrified all-terrain vehicles and tractors.

The fixed nature of a rail line makes it relatively easy to power EVs through permanent overhead lines or electrified third rails , eliminating the need for heavy onboard batteries. Since electric trains do not need to carry a heavy internal combustion engine or large batteries, they can have very good power-to-weight ratios.

In addition, they have higher short-term surge power for fast acceleration, and using regenerative brakes can put braking power back into the electrical grid rather than wasting it. Maglev trains are also nearly always EVs. There are also battery electric passenger trains operating on non-electrified rail lines.

Manned and unmanned vehicles have been used to explore the Moon and other planets in the solar system. On the last three missions of the Apollo program in and , astronauts drove silver-oxide battery -powered Lunar Roving Vehicles distances up to Since the beginning of the dawn of the time of aviation, electric power for aircraft has received a great deal of experimentation. Currently flying electric aircraft include manned and unmanned aerial vehicles.

Electric boats were popular around the turn of the 20th century. Interest in quiet and potentially renewable marine transportation has steadily increased since the late 20th century, as solar cells have given motorboats the infinite range of sailboats.

Electric motors can and have also been used in sailboats instead of traditional diesel engines. Electric power has a long history of use in spacecraft. Current methods of propelling a spacecraft with electricity include the arcjet rocket , the electrostatic ion thruster , the Hall effect thruster , and Field Emission Electric Propulsion.

A number of other methods have been proposed , with varying levels of feasibility. Most large electric transport systems are powered by stationary sources of electricity that are directly connected to the vehicles through wires.

Electric traction allows the use of regenerative braking , in which the motors are used as brakes and become generators that transform the motion of, usually, a train into electrical power that is then fed back into the lines. This system is particularly advantageous in mountainous operations, as descending vehicles can produce a large portion of the power required for those ascending.

This regenerative system is only viable if the system is large enough to utilise the power generated by descending vehicles. In the systems above, motion is provided by a rotary electric motor.

However, it is possible to "unroll" the motor to drive directly against a special matched track. These linear motors are used in maglev trains which float above the rails supported by magnetic levitation. This allows for almost no rolling resistance of the vehicle and no mechanical wear and tear of the train or track.

In addition to the high-performance control systems needed, switching and curving of the tracks becomes difficult with linear motors, which to date has restricted their operations to high-speed point to point services. The type of battery , the type of traction motor and the motor controller design vary according to the size, power and proposed application, which can be as small as a motorized shopping cart or wheelchair , through pedelecs , electric motorcycles and scooters, neighborhood electric vehicles, industrial fork-lift trucks and including many hybrid vehicles.

Although EVs have few direct emissions, all rely on energy created through electricity generation , and will usually emit pollution and generate waste, unless it is generated by renewable source power plants. This would be done by an electrical utility under a government energy policy, in a timescale negotiated between utilities and government. Fossil fuel vehicle efficiency and pollution standards take years to filter through a nation's fleet of vehicles.

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One of the biggest issues related to property, plant and equipment is accounting for spare parts, servicing equipment, stand-by equipment and similar items. IFRS standards are pretty silent about this topic, the guidance is very limited and as a result, companies need to rely on careful assessment of the situation and their judgment. The standard IAS 16 , paragraph 8 specifically says that spare parts are recognised in accordance with this IFRS when they meet the definition of property, plant and equipment thus they need to meet the definition of PPE. If not, then spare parts might be considered PPE.

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The Global EV Outlook is an annual publication that identifies and discusses recent developments in electric mobility across the globe. Combining historical analysis with projections to , the report examines key areas of interest such as electric vehicle and charging infrastructure deployment, ownership cost, energy use, carbon dioxide emissions and battery material demand. The report includes policy recommendations that incorporate learning from frontrunner markets to inform policy makers and stakeholders that consider policy frameworks and market systems for electric vehicle adoption. This edition features a specific analysis of the performance of electric cars and competing powertrain options in terms of greenhouse gas emissions over their life cycle. As well, it discusses key challenges in the transition to electric mobility and solutions that are well suited to address them. This includes vehicle and battery cost developments; supply and value chain sustainability of battery materials; implications of electric mobility for power systems; government revenue from taxation; and the interplay between electric, shared and automated mobility options. The number of charging points worldwide was estimated to be approximately 5.

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An electric vehicle , also called an EV , uses one or more electric motors or traction motors for propulsion. An electric vehicle may be powered through a collector system by electricity from off-vehicle sources, or may be self-contained with a battery , solar panels or an electric generator to convert fuel to electricity. EVs first came into existence in the midth century, when electricity was among the preferred methods for motor vehicle propulsion, providing a level of comfort and ease of operation that could not be achieved by the gasoline cars of the time. Modern internal combustion engines have been the dominant propulsion method for motor vehicles for almost years, but electric power has remained commonplace in other vehicle types, such as trains and smaller vehicles of all types.

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