Dairy is one of the fastest growing sectors in the Middle East which is witnessing an explosive population growth rate combined with higher standards of living. Consequently dairies have stepped up their efforts in both modernizing equipment along with increasing production capacity. A couple of large dairies have reached significant production capacity, exceeding and surprising the traditional diary producing countries of the world. ICS has been involved in dairy equipment for the last decade by supplying high capacity and high quality dairy equipment from North America. Our equipment supplier Kirby manufacturing in California has been well known in the Middle East for over two decades.
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The classification shown in Table However, this classification shall not preclude the designation of more specific requirements in individual cheese standards.
Zoom Table Zoom Fig. Cheesemaking involves a number of main stages that are common to most types of cheese. There are also other modes of treatment that are specific to certain varieties. The main stages for production of hard and semi-hard cheese are illustrated schematically on the block chart in Figure The cheese milk is pre-treated, possibly pre-ripened after addition of a bacteria culture appropriate to the type of cheese, and mixed with rennet. The enzyme activity of the rennet causes the milk to coagulate into a solid gel known as coagulum.
This is cut with special cutting tools into small cubes of the desired size — primarily to facilitate expulsion of whey. During the rest of the curdmaking process, the bacteria grow and multiply and form lactic acid from the lactose. The curd grains are subjected to mechanical treatment with stirring tools, while at the same time the curd is heated, according to a pre-set programme. The combined effect of these three actions — growth of bacteria, mechanical treatment and heat treatment — results in syneresis, i.
The finished curd is placed in cheese moulds, mostly made of plastic, which determine the shape and size of the finished cheese.
The cheese is pressed, either by its own weight or more commonly by applying pressure to the moulds. Treatment during curdmaking, pressing, brining and storage conditions determines the characteristics of the cheese.
The process flow chart in Figure Finally, the cheese is coated, wrapped or packed. The suitability of milk as a raw material for cheese production depends largely on conditions at the dairy farm. Quite apart from the general demand for strict hygienic conditions, milk from sick cows or animals undergoing treatment with antibiotics must not be used for cheesemaking, or any other milk product.
Feeding animals on badly prepared silage can adversely affect the quality of several varieties of cheese. With the traditional method of milk reception, i. The fat content was then standardized in conjunction with separation and pasteurization and, after regenerative cooling to renneting temperature, the milk was pumped to the cheesemaking tanks.
The practice of collecting milk from farms at intervals of two or three days is widespread. This means that particularly stringent requirements must be met regarding the way the milk is treated by the producers. These requirements also extend to the tanker driver, who collects the milk at the farmhouses.
Bovine mastitis is a common disease that causes the cow pain as well as drastically affecting the composition and the quality of the milk; farmers must discard such milk, or at least not send it to the dairy. When collection of milk on alternate days was introduced, cheese producers who had to use such milk noticed that the quality of the cheese frequently deteriorated.
Even longer storage times may be expected when working weeks are limited to six or even five days. During cold storage, the milk protein and milk salts change character, which tends to impair cheesemaking properties.
This reduction, however, is temporary. When the milk is pasteurized, the calcium redissolves and the coagulating properties of the milk are almost completely restored. However, this reduction too is almost completely restored by pasteurization.
Another equally important phenomenon is that the microflora introduced into the milk by recontamination — especially Pseudomonas spp — will adapt to the low temperature at which their enzymes, proteinases and lipases, will decompose protein and fat respectively. The proteolytic and lipolytic enzymes formed by Pseudomonas may also co-operate to penetrate the membranes of the fat globules. This symbiotic co-operation leads to liberation of fatty acids, especially the lower ones, by lipase action, giving the milk a rancid flavour.
This technique was basically introduced for the purpose of arresting growth of psychrotrophic flora when milk was stored for a further 12 — 48 hours after arrival at the dairy. Figure Before the actual cheesemaking begins, the milk usually undergoes pre-treatment designed to create optimum conditions for production. Milk intended for cheese that requires more than one month of ripening needs not necessarily be pasteurized, but usually is. National legislation often stipulates if the milk has to be pasteurized or not.
From Table This implies that cheese milk for types needing a ripening period of at least one month need not be pasteurized. On the other hand, whey used for fodder must be pasteurized, to prevent it from spreading bovine diseases. However, if the cheese milk is pasteurized, it is not necessary to pasteurize the whey separately.
Milk intended for these types of cheese normally comes from selected dairy farms with frequent veterinary inspection of the herds. Although cheese made from unpasteurized milk is considered to have a better flavour and aroma, most producers except makers of the extra hard types pasteurize the milk, because its quality is seldom so dependable that they are willing to take the risk of not pasteurizing it. Pasteurization equalizes the bacterial composition of the milk from one day to the next, eliminating disturbances in an automatic or time-controlled process.
Pasteurization must be sufficient to kill bacteria capable of affecting the quality of the cheese, e. It must also kill most of the natural pathogenic bacteria. Phosphatase negative. However, spore-forming microorganisms in the spore state survive pasteurization and can cause serious problems during the ripening process.
One example is Clostridium tyrobutyricum, which forms butyric acid and large volumes of hydrogen gas by fermenting lactic acid. The butyric acid has an unsavoury taste, and the gas destroys the texture of the cheese completely. More intense heat treatment would reduce this particular risk, but would also seriously impair the general cheesemaking properties of the milk, as it increases the level of denatured whey proteins.
This is unacceptable in terms of both quality and legal requirements. Other means of reducing thermo-tolerant bacteria are therefore used. The most commonly used chemical is sodium nitrate NaNO 3 , but in the production of Emmenthal cheese, hydrogen peroxide H 2 O 2 is also used.
However, as the use of chemicals has been widely criticized, mechanical means of reducing the number of unwanted microorganisms have been adopted, particularly in countries where the use of chemical inhibitors is banned. These inhibitors can also affect some of the added bacteria in the starter culture. As discussed in Chapter 6. The use of bacteria and spore removing separators has proved to be an efficient way of reducing the number of spores in milk, since their density is higher than that of milk.
In applications where quality milk for cheese and powder production is the objective, the spore and bacteria removing separator is installed in series with the milk separator, either downstream or upstream of it. The one-phase type has one outlet at the top of the bowl, for bacteria-reduced milk.
The concentrate is collected in the sludge space of the bowl and discharged at pre-set intervals through ports in the bowl body. These two types make it possible to choose various combinations of equipment to optimize the bacteriological status of milk used for both cheesemaking and other purposes.
It should be mentioned at this point that whey, if intended for production of whey protein concentrate as an ingredient in infant formulae, should be processed after recovery of fines and fat. There are about ten possible ways to configure a line with spore and bacteria removing separators ; three examples are given here:.
This concept, shown in Figure The sterilizer can be of different types; plate heat exchanger, tubular or infusion heater. The spore and bacteria removing separator with continuous discharge of concentrate is used in applications where:. To achieve the same reduction effect as mentioned above, nominal capacities are likewise recommended.
The concentrate from a one-phase spore and bacteria removing separator is discharged intermittently through ports in the bowl body at pre-set intervals of 15 — 20 minutes, which means that the collected bacteriaconcentrate will be rather concentrated and thus also low in volume, 0. When the concentrate is to be re-introduced into the cheese milk, it must be sterilized.
This is illustrated in Figure Starting and stopping of the discharge pump 5 is linked to the operation mode of the discharge system of the centrifuge. Where legislation does not permit re-use of the concentrate , it can be discharged to the drain or collected in a tank. To process the milk once through a spore and bacteria removing separator is not always sufficient, particularly with high spore loads in the milk.
The concentrate treatment procedure mentioned above applies here too. Two spore and bacteria removing separators in series is sufficient in most cases to produce cheese without addition of bacteria-inhibiting chemicals. However, for safety reasons, during periods when very high loads of spore-formers are expected, small amounts of chemicals 2.
It has been known for a long time that a membrane filter with a pore size of approximately 0. In microfiltration of milk, the problem is that most of the fat globules and some of the proteins are as large as, or larger than, the bacteria. This results in the filter fouling very quickly when membranes with such a small pore size are chosen.
It is thus the skim milk phase that passes through the filter, while the cream needed for standardization of the fat content is sterilized, typically together with the bacteria concentrate obtained by simultaneous microfiltration. The principle of microfiltration is discussed in Chapter 6. In practice, membranes with a pore size of 1. In addition, the protein forms a dynamic membrane that contributes to the retention of microorganisms. The microfiltration concept includes an indirect sterilization unit for combined sterilization of an adequate volume of cream for fat standardization and of retentate from the filtration unit.
The microfiltration plant is provided with two loops working in parallel. Each loop can handle up to 5. Capacity can thus be increased by adding loops. A pre-set amount of cream, enough to obtain the desired fat content in the cheese milk, is routed by a standardization device to the sterilization plant.
The retentates from both loops are then united and mixed with the cream intended for standardization before entering the sterilizer. Due to its high bacteria-reducing efficiency, microfiltration allows production of hard and semi-hard cheese without requiring chemicals to inhibit growth of Clostridia spores.
Average figures for five years. Types of cheese are often classified according to a fat in dry solids basis, FDS. The fat content of the cheese milk must therefore be adjusted accordingly. The protein content of the cheese milk can in some cases also be standardized.
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Please call before you come to confirm that what you want to pick up is in stock at our warehouse. We stock about items but some items we sell ship directly from the manufacturers in other states. The Hamby Family has been involved in dairy farming since We have experience milking cows, goats and sheep. We have been selling, installing and servicing milking equipment since Our milking systems are in use in every state in the USA, and throughout the world.
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The grandfather, Mr. To accompany the development of the activity, in , Mr Alain Brenet makes build a production building of m2. In , a second building of m2 is attached to the first one and it includes a repair shop of the sold machines.
When it comes to due diligence we hit the ground running, saving you time and money. We are very experienced and carry out the specialist technical, equipment, buildings, utilities and operational aspects of your overall due diligence process. We can assist you in assessing the local market and competition as well as milk supply, quality and pricing. We can also review the accounts to see if anything looks wrong, an experienced set of eyes to review costs and exceptions. We can evaluate the assets and estimate replacement costs, we can also review budgets against investment to sense check the budget. We appreciate that confidentiality is paramount and are happy to sign appropriate non disclosure agreements. A common example of dairy due diligence is the process through which a potential acquirer evaluates a target company and its assets for acquisition. The financial aspects and profitability of a dairy company are critical but equally if not more important is the sense checking of how the profitability was achieved and if budgets, equipment and capex are appropriate for the dairy business to achieve its goals. The summary included here is not comprehensive and should not be relied upon, it is for general guidance and indication only. The objective of a due due diligence is to assist the client in evaluating the technical, operational and commercial capability of the target business and also assist in estsablishing its value.
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Redefining dairy EFFICIENCY
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We joined forces with Haas in Leobendorf, Austria, in , which is also where one of our major manufacturing sites is based. With our Franz Haas equipment, we are a market leader in wafer equipment. We offer solutions for flat and hollow wafers, wafer sticks, ice cream cones, waffles and wafer snacks. Contact us for sales, service and maintenance, spare parts and product tests.