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Wood Manufacturing ProcessVIDEO ON THE TOPIC: How it's made - Timber
This chapter provides information related to commonly used wood construction methods i. It briefly discusses the manufacturing of four major lumber-based mass timber products i. The discussion also addresses primary lumber products, such as dimension lumber, machine stress-rated lumber, and finger-joined lumber, which are the building blocks from which mass timber products are manufactured.
Advantages of using wood in construction are illustrated by examples largely from North American practices. The life cycle assessment concept is also introduced. Timber Buildings and Sustainability. Prior to the availability of rolled steel and reinforced concrete, wood was the primary structural material in North America and other timber-rich regions of the world [ 1 ].
However, the raw material resources keep changing in more recent times, e. This has permitted economic construction of residential and nonresidential buildings, bridges, and industrial structures. From a technical perspective, modern EWP commonly provide better and more predictable physical and mechanical properties than traditional wood products, such as more uniform structure, greater dimensional stability, greater strength, and stiffness.
Initially, much development of EWP was focused on creating substitute products capable of replacing small dimension sawn lumber and boards as primary elements in light-frame building superstructures; but in recent decades, much attention has been switched to creation of mass timber products MTP.
The term MTP describes a family of EWP of large section size that offers the construction industry a viable alternative to use structural steel and reinforced concrete [ 3 ].
SCL refers to products manufactured by layering dried and graded wood veneers or strands bonded together by moisture-resistant adhesive into panel-like products of a width of up to 2. In principle, SCL is only limited in width and length by transportation considerations. Use of terms in the literature can be colloquial, with timber-concrete composite TCC and other hybrid elements sometimes grouped into the meaning of MTP.
Overall, MTP offers architects and builders many opportunities to express their concepts creatively, while satisfying various technical performance requirements applicable to engineered structures of many types [ 4 ].
This chapter places emphasis on the types of lumber-based MTP illustrated in Figure 1. Figure 2 illustrates three types of wood construction methods, namely light-frame, post-and-beam, and mass timber. Dimension lumber is used for framing members and plywood or OSB for sheathing materials.
Light-frame construction is an economical choice for the construction of low- and mid-rise buildings, which makes use of dimension lumber in a range of grades and dimensions [ 7 ]. Light-frame wood structures can be also used for shopping centers, plazas, service and maintenance buildings, and institutional and municipal facilities.
Prefabrication of components such as wall and roof panels, even complete homes or office units are efficient extensions of this framing technique [ 7 ].
However, the structural system of a light-frame building is not well-defined, resulting in much redundancy. Design of a light-frame building often only includes architects unless the building is large. Wood building construction methods. Traditionally, posts and beams were made of large solid timbers, which were connected with mortise and tenon joints locked into place with hardwood pegs, with diagonal braces for stabilization of a structure [ 7 ].
The post-and-beam construction is commonly used to construct custom-designed homes, commercial buildings, recreation centers, and industrial structures, for reasons of ease of fabrication and consequent economy [ 7 ]. Unlike the light-frame construction, the structural system of a post-and-beam building is well-defined and engineered, generating very limited or no redundancy.
Design of a post-and-beam building is usually formal, involving both architects and engineers, especially if the building is relatively large. Hybrid post-and-beam and light-frame construction features the exposed heavy timber components, but allows insulation to be placed in the wall space, with finishes applied to both the inner and outer faces of the studs [ 7 ]. Mass timber construction complements traditional light-frame and post-and-beam construction methods due to emergence of various types of MTPs, Figure 2—bottom.
It creates single or multiple material hybrid superstructures for building and other structures. Since beams are not always required, new technology and terminology, such as post-and-panel construction, have emerged. What codes and standards permit architects and engineers to do is not yet uniform; but in the broad sense, construction codes and standards in various countries have transitioned, or are transitioning, away from prescriptive provisions to performance-based provisions in a manner that enables greater use of EWP, including MTP.
Most important in this respect is the revision of fire performance provisions related to buildings [ 4 , 6 ]. Mass timber systems are widely reported to be cost-competitive, carbon-efficient, sustainable and reliable, which stem from the scientific data generated from full-scale fire, seismic, durability, acoustic, and vibration tests being conducted internationally by researchers and engineers [ 3 , 4 ].
It is now reasonable to claim that the use of EWP and MTP has the same level of supporting technical understanding as that underpinning any other major class of construction material. Latter sections of this chapter demonstrate the use of MTP as parts of high-performance buildings meeting needs of society and occupants.
Lumber is a manufactured product derived from logs, including boards elements with limited thickness , dimension lumber elements with relatively small section dimensions , and timbers elements with relatively large section dimensions.
Dimension lumber is widely used in light-frame construction, which is categorized into four groups in the Canadian practice: structural light framing, structural joists and planks, light framing, and studs. Dimension lumber is usually graded by visual inspection in terms of appearance characteristics, such as knots and slope of grain.
For example, the grades of dimension lumber used for structural light framing construction are Select Structural SS , No. It should be noted that there is not a strength difference between No. Therefore, the product mix of No. Alternatively, dimension lumber can be mechanically evaluated and sorted into grades using so-called machine stress-rated MSR lumber or machine-evaluated lumber MEL [ 6 ].
The MSR machine is widely used in wood industry to nondestructively test each piece of dimension lumber to determine its stiffness so that it can be assigned a permitted design stress based on the established relationship between the stiffness and bending strength.
Uses of dimension lumber and timbers widely range with differences in whether the former or latter is suitable depending on the type of structural system, and performance requirements applicable to a structural system. In general, dimension lumber is used in systems where multiple parallelly arranged elements act together to resist effects of particular structural design loads. Timbers, on the other hand, can be used in situations where multiple elements or a single element is designed to resist effects of particular structural design loads.
Another important difference is that dimension lumber elements must always be protected from effects of design fire situations; whereas, depending on specifics of a situation, timbers may not require such protection.
Finger-joints are commonly used to join short pieces of lumber together to make longer pieces. The joint profile governs the strength of a joint, and is defined by the finger length, tip thickness, tip gap, and finger pitch, slope, and depth. For example, a mm-long finger joint is commonly used Figure 3—left.
Also, it is noted that cutting out strength reducing features like large knots then finger joining lumber is a highly effective way of upgrading properties of dimension lumber, increasing value, and enabling higher value uses like creation of high-performance MTP [ 6 ]. Another advantage of finger joining lumber is that it increases dimensional stability under changing environmental conditions prior to or after installation of lumber in structures.
Adhesives used in finger-joints are usually phenol-resorcinol formaldehyde for lumber products intended for general applications or incorporated in GLT elements, or polyvinyl acetate for lumber products used as studs [ 6 ]. Two finger joint profiles left: mm long; right: mm long used for joining short pieces of lumber. GLT also widely known as glulam is a structural product composed of multiple pieces of finger-joined dimension lumber, or other types of EWP, adhesively face-to-face bonded to create a desired form.
GLT was first used in Europe in the early s. A patent from Switzerland signaled the true beginning of GLT construction [ 9 ]. A significant development in the GLT industry was the introduction of fully water-resistant phenol-resorcinol adhesives in , which allowed GLT to be used in exposed exterior environments without concern of glueline degradation [ 9 ].
The manufacturing of GLT is deemed as a one-dimension additive process. The grain of all laminations runs parallel with the lengths of straight members, Figure 4. Each lamination is visually inspected based on both faces of the piece, and then assigned one of four grades: B-F, B, D, or C [ 7 ], in which B-F indicates the highest grade and C the lowest grade. Laminations of higher grades are used in the top and bottom portions of a GLT beam, Figure 5 , where bending stress is greatest.
Specified laminations are also nondestructively graded by machine before assembly to meet both visual and stiffness requirements for particular grades of GLT. Sometimes layers of other materials, such as glass fibers, are incorporated among lumber laminations to add strength or stiffness or to locally reinforce GLT [ 10 ]. Durable cold-setting waterproof-structural adhesives are used, such as phenol formaldehyde and phenol-resorcinol formaldehyde [ 7 ].
Because finger-joined lumber is employed, dimensions of GLT members are in principle only limited by manufacturing and transportation capabilities of a manufacturer. Those capabilities are highly variable, with the most advanced involving fully automated manufacturing processes based on advanced integrated design and manufacturing methods. The automated processes can include robot handling of materials and elements from the arrival of logs at a manufacturing plant to installation of elements at a construction site.
GLT is commonly used as beams and columns Figure 4—left and middle , but can be also used as flexural members Figure 4—right. Usually, GLT is used in dry service conditions or is protected in some way if used under outdoor conditions.
GLT members with laminations suiting resistance of bending forces: Upper—Member with a balanced layup intended to maximize material use when the member is loaded in tension on both top and bottom faces EX grade under Canadian system , and Lower—Member with an unbalanced layup intended to maximize material use when the member is loaded in tension on the bottom face E grade under Canadian system.
Design stiffness and strength properties of GLT of a given grade are calculated based on engineering properties of the laminations using equivalent linear elastic mechanics theories. A wide range of GLT grades are available with some involving deliberate placements of laminations of different grades to achieve the design properties of GLT elements suited to their particular applications [ 11 ].
In general, there are two grade categories for GLT, stress grade and appearance grade [ 7 ]. The former defines specified strengths of a GLT member, and the latter the quality of finish on the exposed surfaces of the member. For example, some grades suit uses of GLT elements as beams, columns or tension members, Figures 6 , 7 , 8. Within those designations, numbers 20 and 24 are indicative of the associated specified design strength in bending.
E indicates that associated grade properties apply to elements without an inflection in their deformed shapes, with the proviso faces intended to be stressed in tension are correctly oriented. EX indicates that associated grade properties apply to elements with inflections in their deformed shapes. Similar approaches are adopted by other international standards which define rules for engineering design of timber structures. Source: Photos obtained from Lefebvre and Richard .
NLT is manufactured with dimension lumber laminations, stacked on edges, and fastened with nails, to create large-flat structural components, Figure 9.
Spikes and screws are sometimes used as well. In addition, NLT has been used to create deck and diaphragm elements of bridges and buildings for centuries [ 6 ]. Single laminations are commonly employed if the length of prefabricated panels is less than 6 m [ 14 ]. The spliced laminations of specific pattern [ 11 , 14 ] or finger joined lumber laminations [ 14 ] are used if longer panels are required. For example, mm-long nails should be used to fasten mm-thick laminations, and mm-long nails for mm-thick laminations.
Such requirements are based on practical experience and ensure integrity of NLT in various end use situations. The drawbacks of using NLT are its slow fabrication process and after-fabrication machining problem due to existence of nails. In North America, many timber decks of rural bridges constructed from s through the mids were made of NLT [ 15 ]. Mostly, the NLT was oriented so the lumber laminations were transverse to the bridge span and supported by bridge girders, but for short bridges lumber laminations were sometimes orientated parallel to the span [ 15 ], Figure Another common traditional use of NLT is in floors of industrial and commercial buildings.
The reasons for choosing NLT are as follows: it is well suited to onsite fabrication; it is capable because of the nails of absorbing energy damping vibrations caused by transient or sustained dynamic force e.
Disadvantages of NLT include that it is not particularly mechanically efficient if NLT elements are required to have high rigidity when loaded in-plane or as flexural elements, also there have been durability issues associated in particular with bridge applications.
The disadvantages stem from the flexibility of nailed interconnections between laminations, and proneness to gaps to form at those interconnections e. Recently, use of NLT has undergone resurgence as part of the modern mass timber movement in buildings [ 3 , 4 ], Figure
Our manufacturing plant allows us to offer you this direct sales service and makes us stand out from our competitors. Our manufacturing plan provides its customers with a variety of products and services such as :. We have various tools for cutting lumber. For orders requiring PET, we have a Holtec precision crosscut saw. We are also able to do precision trimming for various species of wood.
THE TROYMILL DIFFERENCE
Sauter Timber specializes as timber frame fabricators and provides heavy timber and mass timber components for builders worldwide. We provide wood components for use in commercial and residential structures. Our skilled craftsmen and state-of-the-art Hundegger Robot Drive component and joinery milling machine sets our wood fabrication apart, allowing us to save our customers time, labor and money on-site. Our CNC technology allows us to fabricate jobs of all sizes and all complexities. We had the opportunity to work on a project that focused on a new type of CLT that incorporates hardwood instead of softwood, this project was the first to use HCLT in the United States.
The Beamery LLC. All rights reserved. Douglas Fir. Once the timber frame is erected and all components are in place, the next step is to enclose the frame. These panels comprised of sheathing and polystyrene foam are fabricated and attached directly to the frame creating the exterior walls of the home. All the electrical and plumbing chases are planned in advanced and strategically placed in the panels during fabrication so that when installed plumbers and electricians are able to run all the required wiring and plumbing components needed for the project.
Timber in the United States economy, , , and Robert Bridger Phelps. Dep U. Department U. Gov United value added attributed value of shipments veneer and plywood Virginia volume Washington West wood products York. This industry also Includes the cutting, treating, and selling of poles, posts, and piling, but establishments primarily engaged in manufacturing other wood products, which they may also treat with preservatives, are not included. This industry includes establishments primarily engaged in sawing lath and railroad ties, and in producing tobacco hogshead stock, wood chips, and Important products of this industry include corrugated and solid fiberboard boxes, pads, partitions, display items, pallets, single face products, and corrugated sheets. These finishing operations include bleaching, dyeing, printing roller, screen, flock, plisse , and other mechanical finishing such as preshrinking, calendering, and napping.
Lumber-Based Mass Timber Products in Construction
Universal Timber Structures serves the design build construction market in the United States. We have complete complement of engineers and estimators available to design and price you custom wood structure projects. Because of its beauty, strength and ease of construction, Wood has long been in demand as a building material. This will help you to get the most building for your budget. Economy doesn't always mean cutting back on size or quality. Comprehensive shop drawings will be produced showing every detail of your design prior to fabrication. Innovative wood construction designs and fabrication offer the strongest testimony to the design versatility, natural beauty and constructional economies. We work with all concerned parties to develop creative ideas into a conceptual design. We discuss such thing as layout, species of wood, connection hardware, and the general feel of the project that is desired. There are a select few that specialize in heavy timber structures. We are one of the few focus specifically in this area.
Fabrication and installation of wooden windows circular-pivoting
An official website of the United States government Here is how you know. Federal government websites often end in. Before sharing sensitive information, make sure you're on a federal government site. The site is secure. The wood product manufacturing subsector is part of the manufacturing sector. Industries in the Wood Product Manufacturing subsector manufacture wood products, such as lumber, plywood, veneers, wood containers, wood flooring, wood trusses, manufactured homes i. The production processes of the Wood Product Manufacturing subsector include sawing, planing, shaping, laminating, and assembling of wood products starting from logs that are cut into bolts, or lumber that then may be further cut, or shaped by lathes or other shaping tools.
Wood Fabrication & Components
Heavy timber has been used as a reliable and enduring building material for hundreds of years. Today, many century-old, timber-framed barns and industrial buildings are being converted to modern office spaces, reception halls, and residences and incorporating the rustic beauty of the original timbers. For those trying to capture that classic feeling in a new addition or pool house, we offer the design and fabrication of heavy timber structures. Beyond supplying large timbers in Douglas Fir, Southern Pine, and Western Red Cedar, we are able to design, detail, and supply custom engineered glulam beams, tapered arches, and curved pergola members. In cases where the structure will be exposed to the elements, pressure treated Southern Pine or Alaskan Yellow Cedar can be specified to make the final product more durable. And when a project demands serious structural connections, we are able to design and fabricate the steel solutions in our in-house fabrication shop.
Wood Product Manufacturing: NAICS 321
At Print Structures we build high-quality customizable wood displays using our CNC Router and manual finishing equipment. They are quickly and efficiently allowing us to meet the fastest deadlines. But what makes us unique is the ability to combine our CNC technology with our print capabilities. Displays are often made of plywood or MDF and wrapped with printed adhesive vinyl.
A New Level of Quality
Washington, DC, Nov. Prefabricated wood buildings—which are no longer limited to single-family housing and smaller temporary workspaces—offer an innovative solution with a multitude of benefits, including process efficiency, a controlled environment, greater return on investment, material efficiency and reduced waste. Collectively, these benefits can help meet the value and performance demands from owners, designers and developers.
Spearhead Inc. The Spearhead team is comprised of designers and technologists, craftspersons and builders, managers and planners.
Descriptions of manufacturing processes 1. This analysis had to identify the amount, type and quality of energy required so as to identify possible energy savings compatible to the respective cost-benefit analysis.