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Textile manufacture during the British Industrial RevolutionVIDEO ON THE TOPIC: How was it made? Linen
By the middle of the 19th century, Britain was producing half the world's cotton cloth, yet not a scrap of cotton was grown in Britain. How then did Britain come to dominate the global production of a cloth made entirely from material imported from the southern United States, India, and Egypt?
The answer lies in a set of circumstances no less complex than the finely woven, beautifully printed British muslins, calicoes, and chintzes that clothed people and furnished homes everywhere. The damp climate is good for grazing sheep, so for centuries, the country was renowned for its fine woolens. Flax, the raw material for linen, also thrives in rain. Linen and wool were used to make the linsey-woolsey worn by all but the richest people in the Middle Ages and Renaissance.
Silk, introduced by French Protestant silk workers fleeing persecution in the 17th century, was also made in Britain, mostly in London. Textile workers plied their craft at home, sometimes to supplement farming. Women spun yarn, often helped by children. The yarn then went to a weaver, usually a man, who might be another family member weaving cloth for the household. More likely, both spinsters and weavers worked on the "putting out" system: A merchant supplied the raw fiber and then picked up the finished goods for sale elsewhere.
Traditionally, one handloom weaver needed the yarn output of four spinsters. But by the midth century, many weavers were using the flying shuttle that had been invented by John Kay of Bury, Lancashire, in By speeding the shuttle across the loom and freeing one of the weaver's hands, this invention upped the demand for yarn; one worker could now weave the output of 16 spinsters.
With cloth in demand both at home, where the population was increasing, and abroad, where British colonies were a captive market, improved spinning methods were essential to meet the need for cloth. Wool production was difficult to mechanize because centuries-old laws protected traditional ways of making it. Conversely, by the s silk was already being machine-made in factories in Derby and Macclesfield with equipment based on pirated Italian designs.
But silk was too delicate and expensive for mass consumption. Cotton, on the other hand, was hardwearing, comfortable and inexpensive.
Unlike wool, its production was not controlled by ancient practices because it had only become widely available after the East India Company began exporting it from India in the late 17th century.
Inventors, therefore, bent their minds to creating cotton-processing machines, and cotton spearheaded the British industry into the factory system. The first major improvement in spinning technology was the spinning jenny, introduced in by Thomas Highs of Lancashire and named for his daughter.
Highs wanted a machine for spinning cotton that would multiply threads more quickly, and he built a device with six spindles. James Hargreaves , who is widely credited for inventing the spinning jenny and was also from Lancashire, apparently improved Highs' design by adding more spindles.
Hargreaves acquired the patent for it in , but by then the device had been widely copied. By the time of Hargreaves' death, more than 20, spinning jennies were in use.
It spun yarn from between 20 and 30 spindles at one time, thus doing the work of several spinsters - a prospect that had made Hargreaves so unpopular in his neighborhood that a mob destroyed his spinning jennies and ran him out of town. In the s, the first newly planted cotton came from American plantations manned by slaves.
The raw cotton had to be cleaned before it could be used by the fast-moving equipment, but it was taking a full day for one person to remove the seeds from one pound of cotton. Eli Whitney, a New Englander, solved that problem with his cotton gin, which used a series of steel disks fitted with hooks to drag the cotton through slots in a grid, leaving the seeds behind.
This invention both spurred the Industrial Revolution in Britain and induced Southern planters in America to grow more cotton. Britain not only had clean supplies of American cotton and an array of machines to handle every stage of making it into cloth, but it also had good power supplies. Eighteenth-century machines typically used water power, hence the siting of early factories near the fast-flowing rivers of the Pennines.
But after James Watt invented the steam engine in , coal became the main fuel. Serendipitously, England's richest mines were also near the Pennines in Lancashire, Yorkshire, Nottinghamshire, and Derbyshire. Thus, these northern areas became the textile strongholds of the country.
The new machinery ended the traditional domestic system of textile production. Machines had to be close to their power source; they could not be in cottages.
Moreover, different machines sequenced to perform specific tasks required both a division of labor and specialized skills.
Workers, therefore, had to follow strict rules about work and punctuality. Some mills specialized in one textile-making process, but others, such as Quarry Bank Mill at Styal, established in , performed all the needed tasks to turn cotton fiber into cloth. At Quarry Bank Mill, nearly half the workers were children between the ages of 7 and 21, most from workhouses and orphanages who were contracted to work for a period of seven years as apprentices. By there were 90 children who lived and worked without pay at the mill, learning the trade as the reward for their work, although there was no significant effort to teach them the trade; mostly they were regarded as a source of cheap labor.
Records from Quarry Bank Mill contain details of nearly 1, children who worked there between and Their day began early. They typically rose at a. Through the day, they usually had three short breaks, when they were fed oatmeal, and then at p.
On Sundays, they had reading lessons, church, and chores, such as tending the owner's vegetable gardens. Life was equally hard for adult factory workers. Until , hours of employment were not regulated, and it was before the law insisted that the machinery had to be fenced to prevent death and dismemberment. The thunderous noise of the machinery never ceased, so most older workers became deaf. Lung diseases were also prevalent, caused by the minute fiber fragments in the air.
Few adults could leave the mills, especially when whole cities were devoted to textiles and little other work was available. He took with him the secrets of the water frame and just as significant the management techniques of continuous factory production that Arkwright and Strutt had pioneered. In , they built a new water-powered factory in Pawtucket, R.
Francis Cabot Lowell of Massachusetts traveled to England in to tour Manchester's mills, just as they were being fitted with power looms. He gleaned enough so that in he built the first mill in America capable of transforming raw cotton into finished cloth, located on the Charles River at Waltham, Mass.
Four years after Lowell's death in , the firm moved to a site on the Merrimack River, where a new town named Lowell in his honor soon became the center of America's cotton industry.
By Lowell had 10 mills employing more than 40, workers, mainly young women. Many were from England. The textile business in Britain, though successful, went through economic cycles. The s were so grim that they were known as the Hungry Forties, and even after the Civil War ended in , American cotton supplies were uncertain and unemployment remained high. Many textile workers therefore emigrated.
English immigrants staffed the sorting rooms of the mills in Lawrence, Mass. Contingents of immigrants from Lancashire went to the mills of New Bedford, Mass. Today, the sturdy brick mills built to house the massive textile machinery still stand throughout New England and northern Britain, all turned to new uses.
There remains one original water frame, at the Helmshore Museum, and a quarter of it works, powered by electricity since the museum does not yet have a working water wheel.
These 18th- and 19th-century devices express both the engineering achievements of their inventors and the difficult lives of those who operated them. Read more: : The legacy of Queen Victoria. Toggle navigation. About British Heritage Magazine Manage your subscription. Britain once produced half the world's cotton cloth without growing a single scrap of the plant, so just how did British textiles come to cloth the world?
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We see its ecological consciousness throughout the industry. Mechanical activities are a part of each operation in its transformation — scutching, combing, spinning, weaving. Counting all stages of production, the European linen industry is made up of 10, companies in 14 countries of the EU : a network of interactive professionnals — growers, scutchers, spinners, weavers, knitters, finishers, traders. Linen helps maintain an economic and social fabric in rural zones. Its growth and transformation require a large, qualified, local work force.
A history of the British cotton industry
The family business is currently run by the fourth generation of Vannestes : Alex Vanneste. We are modifying shortening and refining the long-staple flax and tow into a fiber with the characteristics of cotton, a artificial or synthetic fiber that is suitable to spin on the short staple ring or rotor spinning system. We are certainly the only linen tops supplier offering dyed colors. More than 40 reactive dyed shades are available from stock. All our yarns are spun with European flax selected in the best growing areas in France, Belgium and Nederland. The selection of the long fiber is done by Mr.
There are probably many items of clothing within your wardrobe that are made of linen — but how much do you actually know about it? This article will give you all of the essential information that you need to know and answer some of your burning questions like "How is linen fabric made? The history of linen can be traced right back to the Ancient Egyptians, who valued linen so much that they even used it as currency. Linen was only usually worn and used by those in the upper classes, and this continued to be true when the Greeks started using linen. The Hugenots eventually brought linen manufacturing over to England and Northern Ireland — and since then, linen has been made all over the world.
Linen is a flax-based textile that is predominantly used for homeware applications. While linen is similar to cotton, it is made from fibers derived from the stems of the flax plant instead of the bolls that grow around cotton seeds. Garments made of linen are desirable in hot and humid climates. Unlike cotton, which tends to retain moisture for a significant period of time, linen dries quickly, which helps reduce heat retention in overly warm conditions. Manufacturing linen, however, is much more time and resource-intensive than making cotton, which has led to a steady reduction in popularity of this fabric that began with the invention of the cotton gin. Nevertheless, the unique desirable attributes of linen have prevented the total cessation of global production of this textile, and certain countries, such as China, continue to make linen in reasonably large quantities. While evidence is scant from prehistoric times, it appears that Neolithic peoples in Europe were making textiles from linen as long as 36, years ago. Therefore, linen is one of the longest-produced textiles, and its history may stretch back even farther than the most ancient evidence that modern archaeology has uncovered. While the use of linen for garments in Mesopotamia was mainly reserved for the ruling class, the use of linen in Ancient Egypt was much more widespread. Since linen is naturally white, this fabric was an obvious choice, and its breathability and lack of moisture retention rapidly caused it to become the most popular and valuable textile in Egypt.
VUB a. VUB Co. A lot of important innovations - e.
Based in the North Part of France, in the heart of the world best growing regions for flax fibers, The Flax Company grows with its partners flax fibers which will be used in its productions of linen fabrics and home textile. We have developed strong partnerships in France and Belgium with the scutching mills, with the flax spinning and weaving mills in China and with a stitching factory in India. Consequently we are able to offer traceable goods of highest quality at best price conditions. Our company in in few figures :. A highly skilled professional team at your service from the flax fiber selection to the production of finished products. Flax fiber selection in the scutching mills in France, Belgium and Netherlands. Full traceability from the flax fiber to the finished product. We follow your product, label and packaging specifications. Quality control Our local teams in China and India are controlling every step in the production process.
Factory Price Production Line Wet Flax Yarn Ring Spinning Machine
Woodhead Publishing Bolero Ozon. Peter Lord , Peter R. Written by one of the world's leading experts, Handbook of yarn production: technology, science and economics is an authoritative and comprehensive guide to textile yarn manufacturing. The book is designed to allow readers to explore the subject in various levels of detail. The first three chapters provide an overview of yarn production, products and key principles. The major part of the book then reviews in detail the production processes for short-staple, long-staple and filament yarns. There are also chapters on quality control and the economics of staple-yarn production. The final part of the book consists of a series of appendices which provide in-depth analysis of key topics with detailed technical data and worked examples which is an invaluable reference in itself for anyone concerned with the behaviour, performance and economics of a textile mill.
Series on Fibres: How Is Linen Fabric Made?
The term textile industry from the Latin texere, to weave was originally applied to the weaving of fabrics from fibres, but now it includes a broad range of other processes such as knitting, tufting, felting and so on. It has also been extended to include the making of yarn from natural or synthetic fibres as well as the finishing and dyeing of fabrics. In prehistoric eras, animal hair, plants and seeds were used to make fibres. Silk was introduced in China around BC, and in the middle of the 18th century AD, the first synthetic fibres were created. Silk is the only natural fibre formed in filaments which can be twisted together to make yarn. The other natural fibres must first be straightened, made parallel by combing and then drawn into a continuous yarn by spinning. The spindle is the earliest spinning tool; it was first mechanized in Europe around AD by the invention of the spinning wheel. The late 17th century saw the invention of the spinning jenny, which could operate a number of spindles simultaneously.
What is Linen Fabric: Properties, How its Made and Where
The total scale of linen yarn production of Kingdom has reached , spindles with an annual production capacity of more than 18, tons of wet spun linen yarn and it is currently the one of largest linen yarn manufacturers in the world. Kingdom always commit to sustainable development, therefore, it has introduced advanced textile equipment from countries like Germany, France and Italy. Kingdom can produce the most extensive range of product specifications of linen yarn from 3. Kingdom attaches great importance to the proprietary intellectual property rights and is actively developing its own brands.
Linen yarn is spun from the long fibers found just behind the bark in the multi-layer stem of the flax plant Linum usitatissimum. In order to retrieve the fibers from the plant, the woody stem and the inner pith called pectin , which holds the fibers together in a clump, must be rotted away. The cellulose fiber from the stem is spinnable and is used in the production of linen thread, cordage, and twine.
Textile manufacture during the Industrial Revolution in Britain was centred in south Lancashire and the towns on both sides of the Pennines. The main key drivers of the Industrial Revolution were textile manufacturing , iron founding , steam power , oil drilling, the discovery of electricity and its many industrial applications, the telegraph and many others.
Хедрон пробежался пальцами по разноцветным плиткам. -- Ты не слишком наблюдателен,-- укоризненно проговорил. -- Взгляни-ка вот на эти кромки -- видишь, как они округлены, какую приобрели мягкую форму. Это нечто такое Олвин, что в Диаспаре можно увидеть крайне редко.