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Manufacturing industrial products from corn and other types of grain and waste products

Manufacturing industrial products from corn and other types of grain and waste products

Corn starch or maize starch is the starch derived from the corn maize grain. Corn starch is a common food ingredient, used in thickening sauces or soups , and in making corn syrup and other sugars. Like many products in dust form, it can be hazardous in large quantities due to its flammability. When mixed with a fluid, cornstarch can rearrange itself into a non-Newtonian fluid.

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Feedgrains Sector at a Glance

VIDEO ON THE TOPIC: Maize production, processing and products

Not a MyNAP member yet? Register for a free account to start saving and receiving special member only perks. Expansion of biobased industrial production in the United States will require an overall scale-up of manufacturing capabilities, di versification of processing technologies, and reduction of costs.

The development of efficient ''biorefineries" that integrate production of numerous biobased products would help reduce costs and allow biobased products to compete more effectively with petroleum-based products. The development of new or improved low-cost processing technologies will largely determine which biobased products become available. Currently, certain processing technologies are well established while others show promise but will require additional refinement or research before they come into practical use.

The market prices of large-scale commodity biobased industrial products will depend on two primary factors: 1 the cost of the biobased raw material from which a product is made and 2 the cost of processing technology to convert the raw material into the desired biobased product. The industries for producing chemicals and fuels from petroleum are characterized by high raw material costs relative to processing costs, while in the analogous biobased industries processing costs dominate.

Reducing the costs of producing commodity biobased industrial products such as chemical intermediates derived from fermentation will depend most strongly on reducing the costs of processing technology, the focus of this chapter.

Today's petroleum refineries generate numerous products efficiently and at a very large scale from crude oil, an inexpensive raw material. The development of comparable biorefineries will be essential to make many biobased products competitive with their fossil-based equivalents. Each biorefinery would process essentially all of its biobased feedstock into multiple value-added products.

The product types would include not only those manufactured by petroleum refineries but also many others that petroleum refineries cannot produce.

Some examples of known and potential biorefinery products are:. Prototypes of highly integrated biorefineries already exist in the United States. Plants that currently process agricultural and forestry materials into value-added products include corn wet and dry milling plants, soybean processing plants, wheat mills, and paper mills.

The wheat, soybean, and corn operations are highly efficient and process over 95 percent of incoming feedstocks into value-added products.

In some places, industrial complexes centered around corn wet milling use a single feedstock, corn, to produce a variety of products. Similar refinery complexes could be developed around corn dry mills or fermentation ethanol plants.

Today's paper mills, wood products plants, and sugar beet refineries are partially integrated systems. They have the potential to become more fully integrated by further processing, thereby enhancing the value to consumers of all their outputs. Waste paper and municipal sludge are examples of feedstocks around which biorefineries might one day be built, although this development has not yet occurred.

Corn wet mills used 11 percent of the U. Wet milling of corn yields corn oil, corn fiber, and corn starch Figure The starch products of the U. Although a greater volume of the starch goes to non-food uses, food uses excluding syrups are more significant in terms of dollars per pound.

Most corn fed into a wet mill goes to the primary products starch and oil , and the balance goes to other products; the relative proportion depends on the corn's initial moisture content Figure High-quality No.

North American corn gives the best yields in comparison to European, African, and Asian corn varieties. Latin America could produce corn of equal quality to North American corn.

Wastes generated by corn wet milling are relatively benign and readily treated onsite. However, these wastes also represent potential fermentation feedstocks for generating additional value-added products. Corn wet mills could comprise the front end of an industrial complex that produces food, specialty chemicals, industrial products, fuels, and pharmaceuticals. Such an expanded biorefinery would provide cleaner and more economical processes for producing existing products, new intermediates for manufacturing new products, an expanded stable market for wet millers, and an expanded market for corn farmers.

There, a large corn wet-milling plant and a steam and electric cogeneration station form the nucleus for several other plants. The wet mill is the source of materials for plants that produce industrial enzymes, lactic and citric acids, amino acids, and ethanol.

The enzymes are then used to convert starch to lower-molecular-weight products, principally various maltodextrins and syrups i. The lactic and citric acids are used in processed foods, detergents, and polymers. The amino acids are used as feed and food supplements and, in the case of phenylalanine, to make aspartame.

The ethanol is used as a fuel or an industrial solvent. The United States is well positioned to develop biobased industries according to the above model of a biorefinery complex having corn wet milling as its nucleus. The current U.

In addition, certain corn hybrids under development may yield higher levels of starch. This could lower feedstock costs and decrease byproduct production if these hybrids were more widely planted and used for industrial purposes. In the to marketing year, about 7 percent of U. The United States is the largest grower and processor of soybeans in the world. Soy processing yields 80 percent products i. Most of this defatted meal. Food uses include grain processed for edible applications including high-fructose corn syrup, glucose and dextrose, cereals, food starch, and beverage alcohol.

The U. Moreover, all of the wastes from soy processing plants are relatively benign biological materials that can be readily degraded in conventional waste treatment plants and are usually processed onsite. As with corn wet milling, soy processing plants could serve as the front end of an industrial complex that produces food, specialty chemicals, fuels, and pharmaceuticals. North American soybean growers are highly efficient and outperform international competitors, except where the competition is supported by local tariffs.

American and Canadian soybean production and processing technologies are modern and very advanced. As with corn, such characteristics position the United States well for developing industrial biorefineries centered on soy processing. Such expansion would, however, require new uses for soy protein, since existing protein markets in animal feeds are saturated and could not absorb additional production without depressing prices. In the future, genetic engineering techniques may be used to alter the soy proteins, leading to expanded uses and increased value of industrial processed soybeans.

The comparison of biorefineries to petroleum refineries in Table suggests that biorefineries offer a number of potential advantages because they rely on sustainable, domestically produced raw materials. The development and expansion of biorefineries could yield great benefits to the public at large see also Chapter 1. Such biorefineries could produce significant amounts of valuable products from domestic renewable resources and consequently reduce national dependence on fossil feedstocks.

This change could also reduce the level of pollutants generated by industrial production while still providing goods at prices and qualities comparable to those derived from nonrenewable resources. Further research is necessary to examine environmental and energy impacts at all phases of manufacturing. Switching industries to the efficient use of renewable feedstocks through biorefineries will take time and require considerable technical and financial effort. The quickest pathway would be to build on the existing corn wet mills.

Cargill and ADM already have several corn wet-milling facilities that approach being integrated biorefineries. Lessons learned from these operations and from refining fossil feedstocks could help in upgrading other large grain mills and soybean processors to biorefinery status. With additional effort, paper, sugar, and wood products manufacturers could be brought online.

In the future, biorefineries could use other feedstocks such as municipal sludge and mixed waste paper, crop residues, or dedicated lignocellulosic crops such as poplar or switchgrass.

Gives fuels, food, pharmaceuticals, specialty and commodity chemicals producers more options at potentially lower costs. Several lessons from fossil feedstock refineries might prove helpful in the future development of biorefineries and should be incorporated into strategic planning for the industry.

These lessons include the following:. Developers and analysts of biorefineries can use the above criteria to measure progress toward fully developed biorefinery systems. The eco-. Biorefineries of the future will use technologies based on thermal, mechanical, chemical, and biological processes to derive industrial products from renewable resources.

This section identifies the technologies that might be used by future biobased industries. A distinction is made here between "proven" and "potential" technologies. The former covers technologies that have been evaluated at a large enough scale to ensure the process is technically practicable in a commercial plant. Biological conversion of carbohydrates by fermentation and enzymatic processes is perhaps the most flexible method of converting renewable resources into industrial products.

The carbohydrates for most fermentation-derived products currently come from corn starch. Without new carbohydrate sources, the cost and availability of starch ultimately would determine the scale of biobased industries based on carbohydrates. Lignocellulosic materials could potentially provide a new, much larger by at least two orders of magnitude , and less expensive carbohydrate source for biobased industries. Realization of this potential will depend on the development of inexpensive and effective processing technology to fractionate and convert lignocellulosics to fermentable sugars Lynd, Despite past investigations of many processes, none has yet enabled growth of a large-scale bioconversion industry based on lignocellulosics McMillan, The necessary technical advances present a formidable problem but one that is appropriately a high research and development priority for the nascent biobased products industry.

Thus, pro-. Removing the lignin from lignocellulose is one possible step toward obtaining carbohydrate for further bioconversion. Lignin makes up about 15 to 30 percent by weight of lignocellulosics such as wood and the woody parts of annual plants. Because paper production from this raw material requires removal of most lignin, the pulp and paper industries have well-developed processes for this purpose. Chemical wood pulping produces as a byproduct more than 50 million metric tons of lignin a year in the United States.

The most common process in the United States for removing lignin is kraft pulping, which involves cooking wood chips with a mixture of sodium hydroxide and sodium sulfide to partially depolymerize and solubilize the lignin. The resulting kraft pulp has a value six to eight times that of the original wood raw material. Most of the byproduct kraft lignin is burned to provide fuel for pulp and paper mills and to recover and regenerate the inorganic pulping reagents.

The most modern mills actually produce more energy than they consume, reducing the need for fossil fuels. About 0. The other major chemical pulping process, used more in Europe and elsewhere outside the United States, involves cooking wood with sulfite salts to convert the lignin to water-soluble ligninsulfonate. Although some such mills still operate in the United States, mills must absorb high costs to recover waste materials that were previously disposed of in streams and waterways.

Unlike the kraft process that degrades carbohydrates that are inadvertently solubilized during pulping, sulfite pulping produces spent liquor that contains nondegraded fermentable monomeric and oligomeric sugars. Some mills in the United States and Europe ferment sugars in the spent liquor to produce ethanol. Acid hydrolysis of wood is an old technology developed extensively during and following World War II.

NCBI Bookshelf. The United States has abundant forests and croplands, favorable climates, accessible capital, and sophisticated technologies for a strong biobased industry.

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Basic types of feeds

Not a MyNAP member yet? Register for a free account to start saving and receiving special member only perks. Expansion of biobased industrial production in the United States will require an overall scale-up of manufacturing capabilities, di versification of processing technologies, and reduction of costs. The development of efficient ''biorefineries" that integrate production of numerous biobased products would help reduce costs and allow biobased products to compete more effectively with petroleum-based products.

Pioneer® Brand Corn Products

During the last 30 years, crude protein CP levels for corn have decreased by over 1 percentage unit, i. The CPU—short for central processing unit, or processor—is the nerve center of a computer, the master hardware component. The offered range is processed using the best quality ingredients and modern techniques as per the set industry norms at our processing unit. An acre of U. It is suited for peri-urban agriculture. The time taken for setting up the plantation also needs to be taken into consideration. Additives used in bakery products.

Animal feeds are classified as follows: 1 concentrates, high in energy value, including fat, cereal grains and their by-products barley, corn, oats, rye, wheat , high-protein oil meals or cakes soybean, canola, cottonseed , peanut [groundnut] , and by-products from processing of sugar beets, sugarcane , animals, and fish, and 2 roughages, including pasture grasses, hays, silage , root crops, straw, and stover cornstalks. In the agricultural practices of North America and northern Europe, barley , corn, oats , rye , and sorghums are grown almost entirely as animal feed, although small quantities are processed for human consumption as well.

In terms of revenue generated, Iowa's top five agricultural products are corn for grain, hogs, soybeans, cattle and calves, and dairy products. Hogs are Iowa's leading source of livestock income followed by beef cattle. More hogs are raised in Iowa than in any other state. Less important livestock products of the state are turkeys, sheep and some horses. Iowa leads the states in the production of corn and ranks among the leaders in production of soybeans. Other major field crops include oats and hay, red clover, flaxseed, rye and wheat. Vegetables grown in the state include cabbages, cucumbers, green beans, onions, potatoes and sweet corn. Manufacturers add value to raw products by creating manufactured items.

Corn Processing Unit

Send an email. Assuring the quality of seed and grain in the production process is extremely challenging. For decades, Sesotec has specialised in automatic sorting systems.

Census of Manufactures, Statistics by industry. United States. Bureau of the Census.

Nobody knows corn like Pioneer. Congratulations to our national winners and state winners. Pioneer is proud to work alongside you in the most complex and rewarding industry on earth. The time for change is here and now. Pioneer has the genetics, the tools and the testing capabilities to deliver the most diverse and consistent high-yielding corn product lineup to your farm. Record-breaking yield season after season is the ultimate goal. Farmers near you are seeing consistently high yields with our superior products, seed treatments and best management practices. Our seed treatments, rigorously tested on Pioneer genetics, help you establish healthy crops and uniform stand with proven protection against early season threats.

Sep 29, - Corn is sometimes referred to as "yellow gold" because it is used to shells and other flour products, specialty corn including white corn, dried grain, gluten feed and meal, high-oil feed corn for cattle, swine, Fermentation products and byproducts — industrial alcohols, fuel Editing by Alden Bentley.

SESSION I (contd.)

ERS research in this topic area focuses on the economic, social, spatial, temporal, and demographic factors that affect the poverty status of rural residents. ERS conducts research on USDA's child nutrition programs and their role in children's food security, diets, and well-being. The data include historical U. ERS compares the prices paid by consumers for food with the prices received by farmers for their corresponding commodities. These comparisons are reported for a variety of foods sold in retail food stores.

Iowa Economy

The increase in human population in Europe over the last decades has influenced greatly the demand for food products of animal origin. In consequence this requires a considerable development of animal production. The main interest in this paper is focused on the monogastric animal, mainly swine and poultry. According to literature and everyday breeding practice, the monogastric animals, apart from their high rate of reproduction, are characterized by the best efficiency of nutrient transformation into high-quality animal protein. Nevertheless, the costs of this transformation are very high. Feed conversion expressed in kilogrammes of feed per kilogramme of body weight gain ranges from 2. This indicates that from 4. So we can say that protein and energy resources are the fundamental factors limiting the size of animal production in each country and region of the world.

Automatically sorting seed and grain

Grain is the harvest ed seed of grass es such as wheat , oats , rice , and corn. Other important grains include sorghum , millet , rye , and barley.

Products from corn

Maize or corn is a cereal crop that is grown widely throughout the world in a range of agroecological environments. More maize is produced annually than any other grain.

Starch has been used for many centuries. An Egyptian papyrus paper dating from bce was apparently treated with a starch adhesive.

Sorghum bicolor L. Moench [ Poaceae ].

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