The main objective of this study was to compare the performance of two liquid organic fertilizers, an animal and a plant-based fertilizer, with mineral fertilization on citrus trees. The source of the fertilizer mineral or organic had significant effect in the nutritional status of the organic and conventionally managed mandarins. Nutrient uptake, vegetative growth, carbohydrate synthesis and soil characteristics were analyzed. Results showed that plants fertilized with animal based liquid fertilizers exhibited higher total biomass with a more profuse development of new developing organs leaves and fibrous roots. Liquid organic fertilization resulted in an increased uptake of macro and micronutrients compared to mineral fertilized trees. Moreover, organic fertilization positively affected the carbohydrate content fructose, glucose and sucrose mainly in summer flush leaves.
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Organic fertilizerVIDEO ON THE TOPIC: Introduction to Manures, Fertilisers and Soil Fertility Management [Year-3]
The main objective of this study was to compare the performance of two liquid organic fertilizers, an animal and a plant-based fertilizer, with mineral fertilization on citrus trees.
The source of the fertilizer mineral or organic had significant effect in the nutritional status of the organic and conventionally managed mandarins. Nutrient uptake, vegetative growth, carbohydrate synthesis and soil characteristics were analyzed.
Results showed that plants fertilized with animal based liquid fertilizers exhibited higher total biomass with a more profuse development of new developing organs leaves and fibrous roots. Liquid organic fertilization resulted in an increased uptake of macro and micronutrients compared to mineral fertilized trees. Moreover, organic fertilization positively affected the carbohydrate content fructose, glucose and sucrose mainly in summer flush leaves. Liquid organic fertilization also resulted in an increase of soil organic matter content.
Animal-based fertilizer, due to intrinsic composition, increased total tree biomass and carbohydrate leaves content, and led to lower soil nitrate concentration and higher P and Mg exchangeable in soil extract compared to vegetal-based fertilizer.
Therefore, liquid organic fertilizers could be used as an alternative to traditional mineral fertilization in drip irrigated citrus trees. Management techniques of agricultural production are nowadays focused on a greater commitment to environmental sustainability. On this way, organic agriculture, accepted by the EU and the FAO as an alternative system to conventional agriculture, appears to be an environmentally friendly growing system [ 1 ] since mineral fertilizers abuse and misuse are responsible for health problems and environmental pollution [ 2 ].
It has been claimed that organic agriculture is the fastest growing agriculture in the world. Ecological surface in Spain was 10 3 ha in , representing an annual increase of In organic systems, soil management involves the use of mowed or tilled cover crops, animal manures, composts and the application of organic fertilizers which increase soil-organic matter SOM whilst provide a steady release of nutrients to the crops as the organic matter breaks down.
Exogenous organic matter applications are known to improve soil chemical and physical properties and biological functions, [ 4 , 5 ].
Ameliorated soil physical conditions enhance root growth facilitating nutrient uptake [ 6 , 7 , 8 ]. In this sense, organic manures have been demonstrated to improve the uptake efficiency of fertilizers [ 9 ].
Nutrient uptake efficiency may be defining as total element recovery in plant mg per fertilizer applied mg. Moreover, the application of organic fertilizers has gained more importance not only because of its impact on soil quality but also because its role in carbon sequestration [ 10 ], mitigating atmospheric CO 2 levels [ 11 ].
Organic fertilization has also been reported to have an influence on the phyto-nutritional quality of crops, enhancing the production of antioxidant metabolites in plants [ 12 ]. Yang et al. In the medicinal plant Labisia pumila , organic fertilizer enhanced the production of total phenolics, flavonoids, ascorbic acid, saponin and gluthathione, when compared to inorganic fertilization [ 14 ].
However, liquid organic fertilizers to be used in fertigation with different origin are scarce and insufficiently tested. Citrus Citrus spp. In this context, the organic citrus sector has undergone a dynamic development in the last decade in the EU. The biggest citrus areas are situated in Italy more than ha and Spain, where the sector amounted to around ha in and is under development. In the past, citrus production was focused exclusively on maximizing the yield for commercial markets, and excessive fertilizer rates have been thus supplied to the crops with concomitant salt build up, phytotoxic effects on plant growth and ground water contamination [ 18 , 19 , 20 ].
In this context, efficient use of nitrogenous fertilizers has become a first-order concern in modern citrus production due to nitrate contamination of ground and surface waters [ 21 , 22 ].
Nowadays, fertilization studies are addressed to match and synchronize crop demand with nutrient supply. Interest in improving utilization of fertilizers, and specially N by citrus has been particularly widespread in Mediterranean areas, were citrus cultivation predominates [ 21 , 23 , 24 ], and most wells show nitrate concentrations clearly above the limit of the World Health Organization [ 25 ].
For nutrient uptake studies, the adoption of stable isotope techniques 15 N enables tracing the movement of fertilizer-N in the plant-water-soil system. Under organic fertilization 15 N-labelled manure has allowed direct measurement and accurate estimation of N recovery not only in soil but also in crops [ 26 ].
But, due to the arduousness of the labelling procedure of organic residues and compost, very few assays on NUE of organic-derived fertilizers have been carried out, and all of them in horticultural crops [ 27 , 28 , 29 , 30 ]. The purpose of this study was to test the performance of two liquid organic fertilizers, a vegetal and an animal-based fertilizers, on citrus nutrient uptake, vegetative growth and soil characteristics, when compared to mineral fertilization under drip irrigation.
The authors declare that this manuscript does not matter the any ethic issue and it does not involve endangered or protected species. The containers were arranged outdoors on benches under polycarbonate shelter to exclude rain. Forage maize Zea mays L. The labelled faeces fraction was used as raw material for the AO fertilizer. The VO fertilizer was obtained after an acidic and an enzyme-driven hydrolysis [ 31 ].
The AO fertilizer was obtained after acidic hydrolysis [ 31 ]. Other micro and macronutrients present in the vegetal and animal-based organic fertilizers were also supplied in similar amounts in their respective control. Nitrogen N and potassium K were supplied as potassium nitrate and ammonium sulphate.
Phosphorus P fertilizer demand was applied as phosphoric acid and Magnesium Mg and Calcium Ca requirements as magnesium and calcium sulphate.
The basic iron needs per tree were distributed throughout the growing cycle in a similar way to N in chelate form. Foliar spray treatments of zinc Zn and manganese Mn were applied as organic commercial fertilizer at 0. In this way, organic fertilizers and their mineral controls differed in the nutrient form applied with the same concentration.
Similar N and Ca amounts were added in all treatments 20 and 23 g. However, higher K rate and lower P and Mg were applied with vegetal fertilizers 56 vs. Plants nutritional requirements were supplied by treatments. Vegetal- and animal-based liquid organic fertilizers were 15 N labeled 2. As a result, the experiment consisted of four treatments with five uniform trees per treatment, which were randomized across the experimental area. Mineral and organic fertilizers were supplied between March spring growth resumption and October.
Plants were watered to field capacity every 2—3 days through 2 drip emitters per tree with deionized water, to avoid isotopic dilution of fertilizerN with water N. Similar quantities of organic fertilizers were manually added to each pot. The soil water potential was controlled daily using a ThetaProbe PR2 Delta-T Devices, UK and irrigation was scheduled when the matric potential at 30 cm depth attained kPa [ 32 , 33 ].
With the aim of quantifying nutrient losses associated with abscised parts, tree litter flowers, petals and fruitlets was caught in nets from onset of flowering 1st April until the end of fruit setting 4th July.
Abscised organs were dried, weighed, milled and stored for subsequent nutrient and 15 N analysis. At the end of the labelling period, during dormancy December , trees were destructively harvested to determine nitrogen uptake efficiency NUE and nutrient plant uptake.
All samples were washed in non ionic detergent solution followed by several rinses in deionized water, weighed, frozen into liquid nitrogen, freeze-dried and dry-weighed. Vegetal samples were ground with a water-refrigerated mill, then sieved through a 0. Dried plant material 0. The samples were cooled down to room temperature and 2. Digest product was diluted to 25 mL with ultrapure water [ 35 ] and nutrient concentrations were subsequently measured. Results were expressed as percentage macronutrient or parts per million micronutrients of dry weight DW.
For recovery purposes, known amounts of fucose Sigma Quimica, Madrid, Spain , a sugar absent in the extracts, were added to extracts as an internal standard. The supernatant was removed and the pellet was extracted twice the extraction was repeated three times. Residues were redissolved in 1 mL of water, and then filtered through 0. Empower 2 software Waters, Spain was used for data processing. Fructose, glucose and sucrose sugars were identified by comparing their retention time with a standard and quantified using an external calibration curve.
On July, when half of the N was supplied, soil samples were extracted with a stainless steel cylindrical auger of 4 cm in diameter. At the end of the experiment, on December, soil contained in the pot of each harvested plant was thoroughly mixed after completely removing the fine roots, and then weighed before sampling.
Each sample consisted of three subsamples, which were air-dried at room temperature, dry weighed, crushed through a 2 mm screen and stored for analysis. Aliquots were acidified with 0. The natural abundance of 15 N was considered to be the abundance of atmospheric N 2 , 0. The fraction N which is derived from the fertilizer Ndff was calculated according to Hardarson [ 41 ]:.
Total plant recovery of applied 15 N-fertilizer represents the proportion of applied 15 N that is taken up by the tree and embodies its fertilizer-nitrogen uptake efficiency NUE. NUE was calculated by the formula:. Then, nitrogen retained in soil profile was calculated by the formula:. Before carrying out any statistical analysis, the normality of all the data was studied using the Kolmogorov-Smirnov test. Otherwise, the data analyses were carried out with the variables measured in their natural scales.
The experiment consisted of two factors i the source of the nutrients, organic versus mineral fertilizers, ii the origin of organic fertilizer vegetal- or animal-based. Different sources of nutrient organic or mineral had significant effect on total tree biomass, in spite of an equal N dosage per tree was applied in all treatments Fig 1. Plants fertilized with organic fertilizers showed higher total biomass than mineral fertilized trees, as a result of a more profuse development of new organs and fibrous roots.
Plant growth stimulation under organic management has been previously reported. In citrus, enhancements of the physical growth characters trunk and shoot diameter, shoot length, tree canopy and leaf area have been recorded under organic fertilization based either on poultry manure [ 42 ] and compost plus humic acid [ 4 ] when compared to mineral NPK fertilizers.
Also in peach trees, plant biomass was enhanced by supplying different organic fertilizers [ 6 ]. Biomass stimulation is the consequence of the hormone like effect that humic acids present in organic fertilizers play on the whole plant and especially on root growth [ 6 , 43 ].
In this sense, Hassan et al. According to the origin, animal-based organic fertilizer led to a greater total biomass than vegetal-derived, due to the enhancement of new organs and fibrous roots development. However, Baldi et al. Nevertheless, it is worth mentioning that in this experiment animal manure was pre-digested in order to obtain a liquid fertilizer, which would have increased nutrient availability compared to a direct application of cow manure.
No significant differences were also observed in nitrogen content in whole tree Fig 2b. Nitrogen derived from fertilizer Ndff , that is the relative contribution of fertilizer N to the total content of this element in plant organs, was lower in new flush leaves Fig 3a and on the average of the whole tree Fig 3b under organic fertilization when compared to mineral fertilization at the end of the cycle.
The fact of the lower contribution of fertilizer-N in organic than in mineral supplied trees, together with the lack of differences in total N concentration among treatments, points to an enhanced remobilization of reserve N in organically fed trees.
Similar result was found in nitrogen uptake efficiency NUE in whole tree Table 2 with slightly greater values in plants in which mineral fertilizers were supplied. Bosshard et al. Factor 1: the source of the nutrients, Mineral M versus Organic O fertilizers. Neither Ndff Fig 3a and 3b in new flush leaves and in the whole tree nor NUE Table 2 were affected by the origin vegetal or animal based of the liquid organic fertilizers tested.
According to the analysis of spring leaves, the source of the fertilizer mineral or organic had a significant effect on the nutritional status of the organic and conventionally managed citrus trees.
Any organic or inorganic material of natural or synthetic origin other than liming materials that is added to a soil to supply one or more plant nutrients essential to the growth of plants. Mineral fertilizer : A fertilizer material in which carbon is not an essential component of its basic chemical structure. They are also called as inorganic or chemical fertilizer. Organic fertilizer.
The application of organic and inorganic fertilizer to the soil is considered as good agricultural practice because it improves the fertility of the soil and plant quality. The experiment was arranged in a randomized block design in three replicates. Parameters assessed include proximate, mineral, anti nutrient, vitamins A and C. Data were analyzed using student t-test. Phytochemicals percentage crude alkaloids, tannins, saponins, flavonoids and reducing compounds were higher in organic leaf samples with mean values of 0. Tannins were present in leaf samples but absent in all other plant parts.
This study investigated the effects of applying anaerobically digested food waste and dairy manure-derived biofertilizers to processing tomatoes. The biofertilizers were produced from a pilot scale system consisting of coarse solid separation and ultrafiltration 5, Da with a capacity of approximately 3. The liquid concentrate and permeate from the system were both delivered to tomato plants through a subsurface drip fertigation system in a farm-scale cultivation experiment. The results showed that liquid digestate biofertilizers could be effectively delivered to the tomato plants given that steps to ensure suitable particle sizes were maintained prior to delivery. The ultrafiltered dairy manure digestate biofertilizer DMP had the highest yield of red tomatoes 7.
The construction project of Nakhodka Methanol and Fertilizer Plant has been implemented since The plant will start the staged production launch and reach full capacity in NFP will be constructed near the major seaport named Nakhodka, close to the target sales market - the Asia-Pacific Region. India and Latin America will also be available from the logistic point of view. The Plant would produce 1. Urea production is an option for Stage 3. The production costs per ton are expected to be among the lowest globally.
Nutrient Source Specifics
Looking for brief information about the production, agricultural use, management practices, and chemical properties of common fertilizer materials? Nutrient Source Specifics are one-page fact sheets highlighting various fertilizers and nutrient sources. Written by IPNI scientific staff, these items are primarily for educational use by a non-technical audience.
Organic fertilizers are fertilizers derived from animal matter , animal excreta manure , human excreta , and vegetable matter e. In contrast, the majority of fertilizers used in commercial farming are extracted from minerals e. Organic agriculture, a system of farming, allows for certain fertilizers and amendments and disallows others; that is also distinct from this topic. The main organic fertilizers are, peat , animal wastes often from slaughter houses , plant wastes from agriculture, and treated sewage sludge. By many definitions, minerals are separate from organic materials. However, certain organic fertilizers and amendments are mined, specifically guano and peat. Other mined minerals are fossil products of animal activity, such as greensand anaerobic marine deposits , some limestones fossil shell deposits , and some rock phosphates fossil guano. Peat, a precursor to coal, offers no nutritional value to the plants, but improves the soil by aeration and absorbing water. It is sometimes credited as being the most widely use organic fertilizer and by volume is the top organic amendment. Animal sourced materials include both animal manures and residues from the slaughter of animals. Manures are derived from milk-producing dairy animals , egg-producing poultry , and animals raised for meat and hide production.
Для Хедрона это был вызов, которого ему -- он-то это хорошо. -- никогда было не принять и который, если уж на то пошло, лучше бы и вовсе не существовал. Но Олвину -- Олвину надпись намекала на возможность использования всех его самых заветных мечтаний.
И хотя слово Лиз было для него пустым звуком, он с наслаждением перекатывал его во рту -- немного звенящее,-- радовался ему, как какому-то экзотическому плоду дивного вкуса.
Кровь билась у него в венах, щеки пылали лихорадочным румянцем. Он блуждал взглядом по этой огромной подземной пустоте, пытаясь представить себе, что происходило здесь в древности, когда воздушному транспорту уже пришел конец, но города Земли еще поддерживали какой-то контакт друг с другом. Он думал о бессчетном количестве миллионов лет, которые канули куда-то с тех пор, о том, как с каждым таким миллионом движение здесь все затихало и затихало, а огни на огромной карте угасали один за другим, пока не осталась эта вот единственная линия.
Как долго, мнилось ему, сияет она здесь, среди своих погасших товарок, в ожидании человека, которого нужно направить и которого все нет и нет?. И наконец, Ярлан Зей вообще запечатал самодвижущиеся пути и отрезал Диаспар от всего остального мира.
Phosphorus Fertilizer: The Original and Commercial Sources
Ну конечно же, -- немедленно отозвалась Сирэйнис. -- Оставайтесь у нас столько, сколько вам захочется, и в конце концов мы все же сможете возвратиться в Диаспар, если не передумаете. Но если бы вы приняли решение в течение следующих нескольких дней, это бы упростило. Вам ведь не хочется, чтобы ваши друзья волновались, а чем дольше вы у нас пробудете, тем труднее для нас будет сделать соответствующие поправки. Это Олвин мог оценить. Ему бы только хотелось знать, что это за поправки.
По всей вероятности, кто-то из Лиза войдет в контакт с Хедроном -- о чем Шут даже и подозревать-то не будет -- и займется его сознанием. Сам факт отсутствия Олвина скрыт быть не может, но вот информация, которую они с Хедроном обнаружили, окажется уничтоженной. И по мере того как будут проходить столетия, имя Олвина станет в один ряд с именами тех Неповторимых, которые загадочным образом исчезли без следа и были за6ыты.
Мы пытались скрывать это от тебя так долго, как только могли, чтобы ни единое облачко не затмило твоего младенчества, хотя, я лично думаю, часть правды тобой, должно быть, уже угадана. Пять лет назад мы и сами даже и не подозревали об этой правде, но теперь не осталось никаких сомнений. Ты, Олвин,-- нечто такое, что наблюдалось в Диаспаре всего лишь несколько раз со времени основания города.
Очень может быть, что твое я дремало в Хранилищах Памяти на протяжении всех этих эпох, но не исключено и то, что ты впервые был сотворен лишь два десятка лет назад в результате стечения каких-то случайных факторов.
Он запомнил имя художника и решил при первом же удобном случае побеседовать Все дороги Диаспара -- и движущиеся и неподвижные -- кончались у границ Парка, этого зеленого сердца города. Здесь, на круговом пространстве диаметром более трех миль, жила память о том, чем была Земля в те дни, когда пустыня еще не поглотила, как теперь, поверхность планеты, обойдя лишь Диаспар.
Сначала шел широкий пояс луга, затем -- низкорослые деревья, заросли которых становились все гуще и гуще по мере того, как гуляющий углублялся под их кроны. В то же время уровень Парка постепенно понижался, так что для наблюдателя, вышедшего из узкой волосы леса, город совершенно пропадал из виду, скрытый стеною деревьев.
Обратился он к роботу. -- Нет,-- эхом его собственных слов прозвучал ответ. Со вздохом облегчения Олвин отбросил мысль о том, что робот мог начать действовать по собственному разумению, что на борту вспыхнул мятеж машин.
В двух описанных мною экспериментах доска одна и та. Любой из попадавшихся тебе иногда роботов на колесах сможет легко проехать по ней, независимо от того, соединяет ли она эти башни или лежит на земле.
Мы же - не сможем, поскольку испытываем страх высоты. Он, может быть, иррационален, но слишком силен, чтобы им пренебречь.