Latest Issue. Past Issues. A delicate subject? Very true; and one which must be handled as tenderly as biscuit de Sevres, or Venetian glass. Whichever side of the question we may assume, as the most popular, or the most right, the feelings of so large and respectable a minority are to be consulted, that it behooves the critic or reviewer to move cautiously, and, imitating the actions of a certain feline household reformer, to show only the patte de velours. The omniscient Burton seems to have reached the pith of the matter.
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British American TobaccoVIDEO ON THE TOPIC: Growing, Curing and Fermenting Tobacco Part II
This banner text can have markup. Search the history of over billion web pages on the Internet. The attention recently drawn to the subject has resulted in many inquiries for information useful to the planter desirous of starting a tobacco estate. But beyond scattered articles in newspapers and the pro- ceedings of agricultural societies, there has been no practical literature available for the English reader.
It is a little remarkablo that while our neighbours havo been writing extensively about tobacco growing, of late years, no English book devoted exclusively to this subject has been published for nearly thirty years. A glance at tho bibliography givon at tho end of this volume will show that tho Fronch, Gorman, Swiss, Italian, Dutch, Sicilian, and evon Scandinavian planter has a reliable handbook to guide him in this important branch of agri- culture, while British sottlors in our numerous tobacco- growing colonies must glean their information as best they may from periodical literature.
Production and Commerce.. Preparation and Use.. Nature and Properties.. Adulterations and Substitutes.. Cuban Tobacco Plant.. Maryland Tobacco Plant.. Amersfort Tobacco Plant.. Straw Mat for Covering Seed-beds.. Shade Frames used in Cuba.. Quincunx Planting.. Tobacco Worm and Moth.. Shed for Sun-curing Tobacco.. Hanging Bunches of Leaves 95 Tobacco Barn.. Interior of Tobacco Barn.. Hand of Tobacco.. Packing Hogshead..
Tobacco-cutting Machine.. Machine for making Plug Tobacco.. Machine for making Twist or Roll Tobacco.. Diagrams of Segment Rollers of Twist Machine 24 to Machine for Cutting and Sifting Scrap Tobacco.. Machine for making Cigarettes.. Resweating Apparatus. Machine for Weighing out Small Parcels of Tobacco.. Next to tlie most common grains and pnlses, probablj T no plant is so widely and generally cultivated as tobacco.
In what country or at what date its use originated has little to do with us from a practical point of view, though interesting enough as a subject for the student of ethno- graphy and natural history. Suffice it to say that it has been grown and smoked since pre-historic times in many tropical and sub-tropical countries, and has assumed an importance in modern daily life only surpassed by a few prominent food plants and cotton.
This long-continued and widespread cultivation has helped to produce local varieties or races of the plant which have sometimes been mistaken for distinct species, and caused a multiplication of scientific names almost bewildering. Tho following epitome comprehends the species and varieties of Nicotiana possessing interest for the cultivator : — I.
Cuban and Manilla are now attributed to this group. Tabacum angustifolia — Virginian tobacco. Of this, there are two sub-species — 1 Stalkless Virginian of the following varieties : a N.
Indian, producing heavily in good soil, and well adapted for snuff, hut not for smoking. Latakia and Turkish aro now accredited to N. Of this, there are two varieties: a N.
Until quite recently, Latakia, Turkish, and Manilla tobaccos were referred to this species; Latakia is now proved to belong to N. Ta- bacum, and Manilla is said to be absolutely identical with Caban, which latter is now ascribed to N. Tahacum macropliylla.
Long thought to be a distinct species peculiar to Cuba, but none such is now to be found in Cuba, whether wild or cultivated, and all the Cuban tobacco is now obtained from N. Tahacum macrophyllum. Among the many other forms interesting only to the botanist or horticulturist, the principal are N. Thus tho bulk of the best tobaccos of the world is afforded by tho old well-known species Nicotiana Tahacum. A good idea of the foliage and inflorescence of commonly- cultivated tobaccos may be gained from a study of the accompanying illustrations.
It has a broad yet somewhat pointed leaf, with the ribs not arranged in pairs ; it is fine, soft, thin, and esteemed for smoking in pipes and for wrappers of cigars. The leaves spring from a tall stem at considerable intervals, and are broad and rounded at the end. This Fig. It is distinguished by unusual length of leaf accompanied by a corresponding narrowness. A stem and. These three examples represent tho most successful kinds grown in Europe and at tho same time some of the most marked diversities of form of leaf.
The following observations on the methods of cultivating tobacco have reference more particularly to the processes as conducted in Cuba, India, and the United States ; this branch of agriculture has been brought to great per- fection in the last-named country, and the supervision of the operations in India is mostly entrusted to skilled Americans. The other con- ditions that must be fulfilled in order to succeed in the cultivation of this crop may be modified, or even some- times created, to suit the purpose ; but cultivators can do little with reference to climate : the utmost they can do is to change the cultivating season, and this only in places where tobacco can be grown nearly throughout v the year.
The aromatic principles, on the presence of which the value of a tobacco chiefly depends, can only be properly developed in the plant by the agency of high temperature and moisture.
The fame that Cuban and Manilla tobaccos enjoy is mostly due to the climate. The article produced in Cuba is most highly esteemed ; up to this time, no other country has been able to com- pete successfully with it. Ilowevor it cannot bo doubted that there are many places whose climate justifies the assumption that a tobacco could be grown there, not 8 TOBACCO. The more closely the climate of a place corresponds with that of Cuba, the greater chance is there that a Havanna variety will preserve its peculiar aroma.
In countries where a low temperature rules, the plants must be raised in hot-beds, and there is also a great risk that the young plants may be destroyed by frost, or afterwards by hail- stones. But in spite of these drawbacks, tobacco cultivation is often very remuneratively carried out in countries possessing an unfavourable climate. The defi- cient climatic conditions are here partly compensated for by making the other conditions affecting the quality of tobacco, and which can be controlled by the cultivator, the most favourable possible.
The plant thrives best in a soil rich in vege- table mould ; this, however, is not so much required to supply the necessary plant food, as to keep the soil in a good physical condition. No other plant requires the soil in such a friable state. A light soil, sand or sandy loam, containing an average amount of organic matter, and well drained, is considered best adapted for raising smoking-tobacco ; such a soil produces the finest leaves.
As, in tropical climates, the physical properties of the soil play a prominent part in its pro- ductive capabilities generally, and the presence of organic matter in the soil tends to improve these properties, it will rarely occur that in such places a soil will contain too much humus.
The more clay in a soil, the less is it adapted to the production of fine smoking-tobacco, on account of its physical properties being less favourable to the development of the aromatic principles ; the leaf becomes also generally thick and coarse, but the outturn on such soils is commonly heavier than on a more sandy one. Of less importance than the physical properties of the soil is its chemical composition. By proper tillage and heavy manuring, tobacco is sometimes grown on com- paratively poor soils.
From analysis of the plant, it is clear that it contains a large amount of ash constituents, which it extracts from the soil ; the most important of these are potash and lime. A soil destitute of these constituents would require a great quantity of manure to supply the wants of tobacco. Black river-bottoms will yield more to the acre than any other kind of land, hut the tobacco is not of so fine a quality ; it grows larger, has coarser stems, and heavier body, and consequently, in my opinion, is not so good for wrappers or fine cut as the second bottom or upland tobacco.
The more sandy, to a certain degree, the soil is, the better will be the quality of the tobacco; the nearer the soil is to clay, the poorer will be the crop under similar circumstances, although the yield may yet be satisfactory. Clayey soil will hardly produce tobacco suitable for cigars. Wet and tough clay soils are under no circumstances suitable to tobacco. In Holland, where tobacco-cultivation is carried out to great perfection, each field is surrounded by a hedge about 7 ft. To this circumstance must chiefly be attributed the fact that Dutch growers succeed in getting as much as 50 per cent, of leaves of the first quality, whereas in most other countries 25 per cent, is considered to be a very good outturn.
Any deficiency must be supplied in the shape of suitable manure. Schlosing found that a bad burning tobacco was produced on a soil containing little potash, on unmanured soil, on soil manured with flesh, humus, calcium chloride, magnesium chloride, and potassium chloride.
A good burning tobacco was produced on a soil manured with potassium carbonate, saltpetre, and potassium sulphate. More recent experiments carried out by other investigators tend to corroborate these conclusions. It is generally assumed that a soil rich in nitrogenous organic matter produces a strong tobacco that burns badly. It was found that potash carbonate applied as manuro produced the best tobacco : it burned for the longest time, and its ash contained most potash carbonate ; whereas potash chloride produced a much inferior tobacco.
The assertion of other experimenters that chlorides pro- duce a bad tobacco is thus confirmed. Potash sulphate and lime sulphate produced a good tobacco. It may be noticed hero that tobacco which was manured with gypsum contained a great amount of potash carbonate in the ash, probably due to the fact that gypsum is a solvent for the 12 TOBACCO.
From the foregoing, it may he con- cluded that in tobacco cultivation, the elements potassium and calcium should he restored to the soil in the form of carbonate, sulphate, or nitrate, hut not as chlorides. Poudrette, or prepared night-soil, generally contains a considerable amount of chlorides, and is not well suited as manure for fine tobacco. It has been found that fields manured with chlorides produced heavily ; a small propor- tion of chlorides may therefore he applied in this form, whenever quality is of less importance than quantity.
Farmyard manure may suffice when tobacco is cultivated in proper rotation, hut here also, unless the soil he very rich in potassium and calcium, the application of some special manure will greatly enhance the value of the outturn.
Wood-ashes are a valuable supplement to stable dung. Gypsum is an excellent dressing for soils in a good manurial condition : it supplies the lime needed by the tobacco, and acts as a solvent on the inert potash salts.
Gypsum applied on poor land, however, hastens the exhaustion of the soil. It is said that crops manured with gypsum suffer less from the effects of drought, and require less irrigation, than when manured otherwise : the leaves of plants that had been manured with gypsum exhaling less water than when manured with other sub- stances.
If this assertion he correct, gypsum would he invaluable to the Indian cultivator.
NCBI Bookshelf. Tobacco Smoke and Involuntary Smoking. The common tobacco plants of commerce had apparently been used for millenia by the peoples of the Western hemisphere before contact with Europeans began in The plants were cultivated by native Americans in Central and South America. Tobacco often had religious uses as depicted in Mayan temple carvings Slade,
British American Tobacco
T HE use of tobacco prevails throughout the whole world. Smokers alone are numbered by hundreds of millions. A million and a quarter acres of the earth are devoted to the cultivation of the plant, and the taxes on it alone in France amount to three hundred million francs or sixty million dollars. A custom so general, a habit that has been maintained so long in the face of constant attacks upon it, should be considered seriously. It should be studied from every side, and the various elements of the question should be subjected to a complete analysis by the means of investigation now at our disposal, for it is a scientific problem of the first order. While it is of moral and philosophical interest, and its social con sequences are within the province of economists, it is for science, physiology, and hygiene to furnish experimental data as the basis for their deductions. A proper study of the subject should be made with an independence of prepossession which it is not easy to find.
U.S. Food and Drug Administration
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Biotechnological potential of plant-microbe interactions in environmental decontamination View all 19 Articles. Air pollution is air contaminated by anthropogenic or naturally occurring substances in high concentrations for a prolonged time, resulting in adverse effects on human comfort and health as well as on ecosystems. During the last three decades, air has become increasingly polluted in countries like China and India due to rapid economic growth accompanied by increased energy consumption. Various policies, regulations, and technologies have been brought together for remediation of air pollution, but the air still remains polluted.
This banner text can have markup. Search the history of over billion web pages on the Internet. The attention recently drawn to the subject has resulted in many inquiries for information useful to the planter desirous of starting a tobacco estate. But beyond scattered articles in newspapers and the pro- ceedings of agricultural societies, there has been no practical literature available for the English reader. It is a little remarkablo that while our neighbours havo been writing extensively about tobacco growing, of late years, no English book devoted exclusively to this subject has been published for nearly thirty years. A glance at tho bibliography givon at tho end of this volume will show that tho Fronch, Gorman, Swiss, Italian, Dutch, Sicilian, and evon Scandinavian planter has a reliable handbook to guide him in this important branch of agri- culture, while British sottlors in our numerous tobacco- growing colonies must glean their information as best they may from periodical literature. Production and Commerce.. Preparation and Use..
Popular Science Monthly/Volume 41/September 1892/Tobacco and the Tobacco Habit
Handbook of Occupational Dermatology pp Cite as. Tobacco, mainly Nicotiana tabacum L. In plantations, the agricultural workers plant and tend the tobacco plants using different tools and use fertilisers and pesticides. The harvesters select mature green tobacco leaves, cut them at ground level, load cut plants onto wagons and hang them in barns to cure. The curing stage consists of a slow desiccation lasting 1—2 months. The green leaves may be dried in drying sheds with a heated air-conditioning system. The fermenting stage is carried out by moistening the leaves and leaving them in rooms for several months. Fermentation occurs thanks to oxidases and peroxidases contained in the plant.
Cigarette and Cigar Makers and Tobacco Workers
Tobacco companies, like any corporation, see their workers and factories only as means to profits. Tobacco products are made as attractive and addictive as possible, so tobacco control must take active steps to limit product appeal. Once raw tobacco leaf has been grown by a farmer and sold to a manufacturer, it must be processed into a desirable consumer product. To maximize profits, tobacco manufacturers want to make products that are as attractive and addictive as possible. When these standards are written with public health in mind, tobacco products can be mandated to be less attractive and less addictive to users. Additional policies include freezing the tobacco market by preventing the introduction of new brands, restricting a brand to a single presentation to prevent implicit suggestions of reduced harm in variants, and requiring the disclosure of ingredients to regulatory agencies and consumers. Banning the addition of menthol, the most widely used flavor in tobacco products, has considerable potential to curb smoking.
There are few regions throughout the world that provide ideal conditions to cultivate tobacco. The foundation for every successful cultivation is an ideal soil and seeds.
Корабль все еще быстро мчался к Центральному Солнцу, а шесть прочих звезд были расставлены по небу наподобие цветных маяков.
Неподалеку от ближайшей из них виднелись крошечные искорки планет. Миры эти должны были иметь гигантские размеры, чтобы быть видимыми на подобном расстоянии. Теперь прояснилась природа перламутрового сияния Центрального Солнца.
Издавна люди мечтали о золотом веке, но наступил он лишь для обитателей Диаспара. Они жили все в том же городе, ходили по тем же удивительно неизменным улицам, а между тем число лет, пронесшихся над ними, превысило миллиард. Чтобы пробиться к выходу из Пещеры Белых Червей, пришлось потратить много часов.
Знаю, знаю,-- улыбнулся Хедрон. -- Когда-то человек путешествовал по всему миру и даже к звездам. Что-то изменило его и вселило в него этот страх, с которым он теперь и рождается. Ты -- единственный, кто воображает, будто ему этот страх несвойствен.