Objectives Of Textile Industry. India is leading country of cotton fabrics and wollen carpets and cotton durries. We can define work study in the following way. Textile industry caters to one of the most basic needs of people and holds importance in maintaining sustained growth for improving the quality of life. About just-style.
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Machineries Used in Textile IndustryVIDEO ON THE TOPIC: How Linen Is Made
Clothing and Finished Textile Products. Accidents in Clothing Manufacture A. Occupational diseases. In general, the processes involved in the production of clothing and other finished textile products have changed little since the inception of the industry. Although the organization of the production process has changed, and continues to change, and some technological advances have upgraded machinery, many of the safety and health hazards in this industry remain the same as those facing the earliest apparel workers.
The major health and safety concerns in the apparel industry are related to general conditions of the work environment. Poorly designed workstations, tools and equipment, combined with piece-rate compensation systems and the progressive bundle system of production, pose serious risks of musculoskeletal injury and stress-related conditions.
Garment shops are often housed in buildings that are poorly maintained and inadequately ventilated, cooled, heated and lit. Overcrowding, together with improper storage of flammable materials, frequently creates serious fire hazards.
Poor sanitation and lack of proper housekeeping measures contribute to these conditions. Major advances have been made in the design and production of well-designed, ergonomic sewing workstations that include adjustable sewing tables and chairs and take into consideration proper positioning of equipment and tools.
These workstations are widely available and are in use in some facilities, mostly large manufacturing establishments. However, only the largest, best-capitalized facilities are able to afford these amenities. Ergonomic redesign is also possible in other clothing manufacturing operations see figure 1. The majority of apparel production, however, still takes place in small, ill-equipped contracting operations where, in general, little attention is paid to workplace design, working conditions and health and safety hazards.
Product design and sample-making. Apparel jobbers, manufacturers or retailers are frequently responsible only for the design, sample production and marketing of the product.
Samples are produced by highly skilled sewing machine operators, sample-makers, who sew the entire garment. Pattern-making and cutting. Garment design must be broken down into pattern parts for cutting and sewing.
Traditionally, cardboard patterns are made up for each piece of the garment; these patterns are graded by the sizes to be made. From these patterns, paper-cutting markers are created, which are used by the garment cutter to cut out the pattern pieces.
In more modern plants, cutting markers are made up and graded for size on a computer screen, then printed on a computerized plotter. In the cutting phase, fabric is first spread into multiple piles on a cutting table, the length and width of which is determined by production demands. This is most often performed by an automatic or semi-automatic spreading machine which unrolls the bolts of fabric along the length of the table.
Plaid or print fabrics may be laid out by hand and pinned to assure that plaids for prints will match. Markers are then laid down on the fabric to be cut. Fabric for apparel production is usually cut using hand-held band saw cutting tools see figure 2. Small parts may be cut using a die press. Advanced cutting technology includes robotic cutting, which automatically follows patterns made on a computer. There are several hazards associated with fabric cutting.
Although the blade on the cutting tool is guarded, this guard must be correctly set in order to afford the necessary protection to the hand positioning the material. Guards should always be used and correctly positioned. As an additional protection it is recommended that cutting machine operators wear a protective glove, preferably of metal mesh.
Besides posing the risk of accidental cuts, cutting fabric also presents ergonomic risks. Supporting and manoeuvering a cutting machine, while stretching across the cutting table, can present a risk of neck, upper-extremity and back disorders. Finally, many cutters have a tendency to work with the cutting machine at ear level, often exposing themselves to excessive noise with the attendant risk of noise-induced hearing loss.
Handling rolls of fabric, which can weigh up to 32 kg and must be lifted above the head onto a rack for spreading, also poses an ergonomic hazard. Proper material-handling equipment can eliminate or reduce these risks. Sewing machine operation. Typically, cut fabric pieces are sewn together on sewing machines operated by hand. This type of work organization breaks the production process down into many different operations, each consisting of a very short cycle repeated hundreds of times by one operator during the course of a workday.
This system, combined with piece-rate pay compensation that rewards speed above all else and affords workers very little control over the production process, creates a potentially very stressful work environment. The majority of the sewing machine workstations currently in use are designed without the comfort, health or convenience of the sewing machine operator in mind see figure 3. Because sewing machine operators generally work in a seated position at poorly designed workstations, performing the same operation during the entire course of the workday, the risk of developing musculoskeletal disorders is high.
The poor postures resulting from the conditions described above, combined with highly repetitive, time-pressured work, has resulted in high rates of work-related musculoskeletal disorders WRMDs among sewing machine operators and other workers in the industry. Advances in sewing workstation design, such as adjustable chairs and worktables, create the potential for reduction of some of the risks associated with sewing machine operation.
However, while these workstations and chairs are widely available, their price often places them out of reach of all but the most profitable enterprises. Additionally, even with better-designed workstations, the risk factor of repetition remains.
Changes in the organization of work and the introduction of teamwork, in the form of modular or flexible manufacturing, offer an alternative to the traditional, Taylorist production process and may serve to alleviate some of the health risks involved in the traditional system. In a teamwork system sewing machine operators work in a group to produce an entire garment, often shifting frequently between machines and jobs. In one of the most popular team systems, workers work standing up, rather than seated, and move frequently from machine to machine.
Changes from an individual piece-rate system of pay to hourly pay or to a group incentive system, as well as increased emphasis on monitoring quality throughout the production process, may help to eliminate some factors that put workers at risk of developing WRMDs. Some newer manufacturing systems, while technologically advanced, may actually contribute to increased risk of WRMD. So-called unit production systems, for example, are designed to mechanically convey cut goods on an overhead conveyor from worker to worker, thus speeding up the progress of the goods and eliminating much of the material handling previously performed by the sewing machine operators or by floor workers.
While these systems often increase production by speeding up the line, they eliminate the already small rest time that was afforded to the operator between cycles, resulting in increased fatigue and repetition. When instituting any alternative production system, care should be taken to evaluate risk factors and design the new system with ergonomics in mind.
For example, when workers will be trained to do a variety of jobs, jobs should be combined to stress differing parts of the body and not overtax any one muscle or joint. Care should be taken to ensure that equipment and machinery can be adapted to fit all the workers in the team.
Whenever any new equipment is purchased, it should be easily adjustable by the workers themselves, and training should be provided on how to make adjustments. This is particularly important in the apparel industry, where mechanics are often not readily available to adjust equipment to properly fit workers. Finishing and pressing. Once sewn, the completed garment is ironed by pressers and checked for loose threads, stains and other defects by finishers.
Finishers perform a variety of hand work, including clipping loose threads, hand sewing, turning and hand pressing. Ergonomic hazards are a problem for workers who finish, ticket, pack and distribute apparel. They often perform highly repetitive tasks, frequently involving working with the hands and arms in awkward and unhealthy postures.
Seating and workstations for these workers are rarely adjustable or designed for comfort or health. Finishing workers, including pressers, often work standing and in static positions, despite the fact that many of the jobs could be equipped with chairs, stools or sit-stand chairs, and workers could alternate between standing and sitting. Table tops could be adjusted to the proper height for the operator and could be tilted to enable the operator to work in a more comfortable position.
Padded table edges and properly designed and sized tools could eliminate some stresses on hands, wrists and arms. Pressing the sewn product is performed either using a hand iron or a buck press. Sewn products may also be steamed using a hand steamer or a steam tunnel. Presses and irons may present risks of burns, as well as ergonomic hazards. While most presses are designed with two-handed controls, eliminating the possibility of getting the hand stuck in the press, some old machines still exist which do not have these safety features.
Working a pressing machine also presents the risks of shoulder, neck and back injury caused by frequent overhead reaching and by constant standing and operating the foot pedals. While the job can be made safer by a more highly automated machine and by proper positioning of the worker at the machine, the current machinery makes it difficult to eliminate the high stress. Ticketers, who use ticketing guns to place tags on finished garments, are at risk of hand and wrist injury from this highly repetitive operation.
Automatic, as opposed to manual, ticketing guns can help decrease the force needed to perform the operation, greatly reducing stress and strain on the fingers and hands. Workers in apparel distribution centres are exposed to all the hazards of other warehouse workers. Manual material handling accounts for many of the injuries in warehouse operations.
Particular hazards include lifting and overhead work. Designing the distribution workplace with the proper handling of materials in mind, such as placement of conveyors and worktables at appropriate heights, can help prevent many injuries. Mechanical material-handling equipment, such as fork-lifts and hoists, can help prevent injuries caused by having to perform awkward or heavy lifts.
Chemical exposure. Workers at every stage of apparel production may be exposed to the chemicals used in fabric finishing; the most common of these is formaldehyde. Used to make fabric permanent press and colour-fast, formaldehyde is released into the air from fabric in the form of a gas. Workers may also have skin exposure to formaldehyde as they handle the fabric. The amount of formaldehyde released from fabric depends on a variety of factors, including the amount used in finishing, the finishing process used and the ambient heat and humidity.
Exposure to formaldehyde can be prevented by allowing the fabric to off-gas in a well-ventilated area before it is handled and by providing good ventilation in the work areas, particularly where fabric is exposed to high heat and humidity e. Workers who experience skin problems from handling formaldehyde-treated fabric can wear gloves or protective cream.
Finally, textile manufacturers should be encouraged to develop safer alternative fabric treatments. The pleating process is used to place creases or pleats into fabric or garments.
This process uses high temperatures and high humidity to put folds into various types of fabric. Pleaters are exposed to these conditions of high heat and humidity, which may cause the release of greater quantities of substances used to finish the fabric than may otherwise be released under conditions of normal temperature and humidity. Steam boxes and steam chambers expose the pleated fabric to steam under pressure.
To create a rubberized or waterproof finish, fabrics may be coated with a waterproof substance. These various coatings, which may be a type of rubber, are often thinned with solvents, including those that pose serious health risks to exposed workers.
These coatings may include benzene or dimethylformamide, as well as other solvents. Workers are exposed to these chemicals when they are mixed or poured, often by hand, or in large vats in poorly ventilated areas.
Reviewed: June 11th Published: August 28th Textile Manufacturing Processes. Textile fibers provided an integral component in modern society and physical structure known for human comfort and sustainability. Man is a friend of fashion in nature. The desire for better garment and apparel resulted in the development of textile fiber production and textile manufacturing process.
Apparel and Textiles: Background
I t has been an amazing year for the U. The time for change is now and NCTO is committed to working with the Trump administration and our allies in Congress to achieve the best policy outcomes on these and other issues. Thanks to its productivity, flexibility and innovation, the U. In , the value of U. Capital expenditures also are healthy. As we examine these numbers, it is important to note that the heavy job losses incurred because of massive import surges in the timeframe, virtually have stopped. The most important U.
Other textile industry machines
Textile production is a global industry that has been a part of human civilization since the dawn of man since clothing is a basic feature of any society. As such, clothing and textiles have been a part of history and suggest the materials as well as the technology that is available to the people in a specific location. Textile manufacturing was a catalyst for the Industrial Revolution in America that sparked in the eighteenth and nineteenth centuries. It called for an economy that caused the movement of a significant number of people from the rural areas to urban centres, to leave their agricultural jobs in exchange for works in manufacturing plants. Textile manufacturing involves a number of processes: fibre production, yarn production, fabric production, pre-treatment of fabrics, dyeing and printing, and, finally, applying finishing treatments. Textiles can be felt produced by matting, condensing and pressing fibres together or spun fibres that are made into yarn and subsequently netted, looped, knit, or woven to make fabrics. Throughout history, the methods of textile production have constantly progressed.
Plastic Pipes And Shapes Market Definition The plastic pipes and shapes market consists of sales of plastic pipes and pipe fittings, and plastics profile shapes such as rods, tubes and non-rigid plastic sausage casings by entities organizations, sole traders and partnerships that manufacture plastic pipes and pipe fittings, and plastics profile shapes such as rods, tubes and non-rigid plastic sausage casings. Businesses in the plastic pipes and shapes industry use polymers and resins as raw materials which are primarily sourced from polymer suppliers. A plastic pipe is a tubular section, or hollow cylinder, made of plastic. It is usually of a circular cross-section, used mainly to convey substances which can flow i. Plastic pipes are normally used for local movement of liquids and gases. Clothing And Apparel Market Definition The clothing and apparel market consists of sales of apparel by entities organizations, sole traders and partnerships that manufacture apparel. Apparel refers to clothing or garments in general. Apparel manufacturers cut and sew i.
Textile, Textile Product, and Apparel Manufacturing Industries
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Industry Composition:. The apparel and textile industry can be broken down into two major segments: the production of textiles and fabric from raw materials and the transformation of these fabrics into clothing and other accessories. The textile section of the industry involves taking raw material, converting that material to yarn, and then dyeing and finishing the fabric made from the yarn. Many textile companies in this industry today are vertically integrated like the process described previously. Textile fabrics can include bolts of fabric, but also materials such as carpeting, towels, upholstery, or even industrial products such as fire hoses. The apparel industry consists of cutting fabrics and other materials and sewing them together to create apparel or accessories, including footwear, outerwear, pants, and tops. This industry also includes lesser seen knitting mills. The textiles and apparel industry is an ancient one; bone needles have been found dating as far back as 30, BC.
Introductory Chapter: Textile Manufacturing Processes
The textile, textile product, and apparel manufacturing industries include establishments that process fiber into fabric and fabric into clothing and other textile products. While most apparel manufacturers worldwide rely on people to cut and sew pieces of fabric together, U. Because the apparel industry has moved mainly to other countries with cheaper labor costs, that which remains in the United States must be extremely labor efficient to compete effectively with foreign manufacturers. Goods and services. The establishments in these industries produce a variety of goods, some of which are sold to the consumer, while others are sold as inputs to the manufacture of other products. Natural and synthetic fibers are used to produce threads and yarns—which may be woven, knitted, or pressed or otherwise bonded into fabrics—as well as rope, cordage, and twine. Coatings and finishes are applied to the fabrics to enhance the decorative patterns woven into the fabric, or to make the fabric more durable, stain-resistant, or have other properties. Fabrics are used to make many products, including awnings, tents, carpets and rugs, as well as a variety of linens—curtains, tablecloths, towels, and sheets. However, the principal use of fabrics is to make apparel. Establishments in the apparel manufacturing industry produce many knitted clothing products, such as hosiery and socks, shirts, sweaters, and underwear.
Textile Manufacturing Ppt
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Covering machine, for the production of fancy yarns for the trimming industry, shoes industry and for the production of special yarns. Possibility to work from any kind of yarns, including metallic threads and Lurex.
Conquering industry challenges, the textile is one of the well-established industries in the competitive market place. Countries are chasing textile and apparel exports for numerous benefits — boost local, state and federal economy, enhanced domestic competitiveness, diversification, and to gain global market share. The Textile and textile machine manufacturing is one of the largest industries in Spain.
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