The term fish processing refers to the processes associated with fish and fish products between the time fish are caught or harvested, and the time the final product is delivered to the customer. Although the term refers specifically to fish, in practice it is extended to cover any aquatic organisms harvested for commercial purposes, whether caught in wild fisheries or harvested from aquaculture or fish farming. Larger fish processing companies often operate their own fishing fleets or farming operations. The products of the fish industry are usually sold to grocery chains or to intermediaries. Fish are highly perishable. A central concern of fish processing is to prevent fish from deteriorating, and this remains an underlying concern during other processing operations.
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The term fish processing refers to the processes associated with fish and fish products between the time fish are caught or harvested, and the time the final product is delivered to the customer.
Although the term refers specifically to fish, in practice it is extended to cover any aquatic organisms harvested for commercial purposes, whether caught in wild fisheries or harvested from aquaculture or fish farming. Larger fish processing companies often operate their own fishing fleets or farming operations. The products of the fish industry are usually sold to grocery chains or to intermediaries. Fish are highly perishable.
A central concern of fish processing is to prevent fish from deteriorating, and this remains an underlying concern during other processing operations. Fish processing can be subdivided into fish handling, which is the preliminary processing of raw fish, and the manufacture of fish products. Another natural subdivision is into primary processing involved in the filleting and freezing of fresh fish for onward distribution to fresh fish retail and catering outlets, and the secondary processing that produces chilled, frozen and canned products for the retail and catering trades.
There is evidence humans have been processing fish since the early Holocene. Fish is a highly perishable food which needs proper handling and preservation if it is to have a long shelf life and retain a desirable quality and nutritional value.
The most obvious method for preserving the quality of fish is to keep them alive until they are ready for cooking and eating.
For thousands of years, China achieved this through the aquaculture of carp. Other methods used to preserve fish and fish products include . Usually more than one of these methods is used. When chilled or frozen fish or fish products are transported by road, rail, sea or air, the cold chain must be maintained.
This requires insulated containers or transport vehicles and adequate refrigeration. Modern shipping containers can combine refrigeration with a controlled atmosphere. Fish processing is also concerned with proper waste management and with adding value to fish products. There is an increasing demand for ready to eat fish products, or products that do not need much preparation.
When fish are captured or harvested for commercial purposes, they need some preprocessing so they can be delivered to the next part of the marketing chain in a fresh and undamaged condition.
This means, for example, that fish caught by a fishing vessel need handling so they can be stored safely until the boat lands the fish on shore. Typical handling processes are . The number and order in which these operations are undertaken varies with the fish species and the type of fishing gear used to catch it, as well as how large the fishing vessel is and how long it is at sea, and the nature of the market it is supplying.
The equipment and procedures in modern industrial fisheries are designed to reduce the rough handling of fish, heavy manual lifting and unsuitable working positions which might result in injuries. An alternative, and obvious way of keeping fish fresh is to keep them alive until they are delivered to the buyer or ready to be eaten.
This is a common practice worldwide. Typically, the fish are placed in a container with clean water, and dead, damaged or sick fish are removed. The water temperature is then lowered and the fish are starved to reduce their metabolic rate.
This decreases fouling of water with metabolic products ammonia, nitrite and carbon dioxide that become toxic and make it difficult for the fish to extract oxygen. Fish can be kept alive in floating cages, wells and fish ponds. In aquaculture , holding basins are used where the water is continuously filtered and its temperature and oxygen level are controlled. In China, floating cages are constructed in rivers out of palm woven baskets, while in South America simple fish yards are built in the backwaters of rivers.
Live fish can be transported by methods which range from simple artisanal methods where fish are placed in plastic bags with an oxygenated atmosphere, to sophisticated systems which use trucks that filter and recycle the water, and add oxygen and regulate temperature. Preservation techniques are needed to prevent fish spoilage and lengthen shelf life. They are designed to inhibit the activity of spoilage bacteria and the metabolic changes that result in the loss of fish quality.
Spoilage bacteria are the specific bacteria that produce the unpleasant odours and flavours associated with spoiled fish. Fish normally host many bacteria that are not spoilage bacteria, and most of the bacteria present on spoiled fish played no role in the spoilage. Preservation techniques work by interrupting one or more of these needs.
Preservation techniques can be classified as follows. If the temperature is decreased, the metabolic activity in the fish from microbial or autolytic processes can be reduced or stopped. On fishing vessels, the fish are refrigerated mechanically by circulating cold air or by packing the fish in boxes with ice.
Forage fish , which are often caught in large numbers, are usually chilled with refrigerated or chilled seawater. Once chilled or frozen, the fish need further cooling to maintain the low temperature.
There are key issues with fish cold store design and management, such as how large and energy efficient they are, and the way they are insulated and palletized. An effective method of preserving the freshness of fish is to chill with ice by distributing ice uniformly around the fish. It is a safe cooling method that keeps the fish moist and in an easily stored form suitable for transport. It has become widely used since the development of mechanical refrigeration , which makes ice easy and cheap to produce.
Ice is produced in various shapes; crushed ice and Flake Ice , plates, tubes and blocks are commonly used to cool fish. A more recent development is pumpable ice technology.
Pumpable ice flows like water, and because it is homogeneous , it cools fish faster than fresh water solid ice methods and eliminates freeze burns.
Fish cooling by pumpable ice. Ice manufactured in this ice house is delivered down the Archimedes screw into the ice hold on the boat, Pittenweem.
The water activity , a w , in a fish is defined as the ratio of the water vapour pressure in the flesh of the fish to the vapour pressure of pure water at the same temperature and pressure. It ranges between 0 and 1, and is a parameter that measures how available the water is in the flesh of the fish. Available water is necessary for the microbial and enzymatic reactions involved in spoilage.
There are a number of techniques that have been or are used to tie up the available water or remove it by reducing the a w. Traditionally, techniques such as drying , salting and smoking have been used, and have been used for thousands of years.
These techniques can be very simple, for example, by using solar drying. In more recent times, freeze-drying , water binding humectants , and fully automated equipment with temperature and humidity control have been added.
Often a combination of these techniques is used. Fish barn with fish drying in the sun — Van Gogh Platforms, called fish flakes , where cod dry in the sun before being packed in salt. Reconstruction of the Roman fish-salting plant at Neapolis. Ruins of the Port Eynon Salt House — seawater was boiled to extract salt for preserving fish. Heat or ionizing irradiation can be used to kill the bacteria that cause decomposition.
Heat is applied by cooking, blanching or microwave heating in a manner that pasteurizes or sterilizes fish products. Cooking or pasteurizing does not completely inactivate microorganisms and may need to be followed with refrigeration to preserve fish products and increase their shelf life. Microbial growth and proliferation can be inhibited by a technique called biopreservation. Most bacteria stop multiplying when the pH is less than 4. Acidity is increased by fermentation , marination or by directly adding acids acetic, citric, lactic to fish products.
Lactic acid bacteria produce the antimicrobial nisin which further enhances preservation. Other preservatives include nitrites , sulphites , sorbates , benzoates and essential oils.
Spoilage bacteria and lipid oxidation usually need oxygen, so reducing the oxygen around fish can increase shelf life. This is done by controlling or modifying the atmosphere around the fish, or by vacuum packaging. Controlled or modified atmospheres have specific combinations of oxygen, carbon dioxide and nitrogen, and the method is often combined with refrigeration for more effective fish preservation. Two or more of these techniques are often combined. This can improve preservation and reduce unwanted side effects such as the denaturation of nutrients by severe heat treatments.
Patent issued to Clarence Birdseye for the production of quick-frozen fish, Fish feed production in Norway. Fish is transported widely in ships, and by land and air, and much fish is traded internationally.
It is traded live, fresh, frozen, cured and canned. Live, fresh and frozen fish need special care. ISO defines quality as "the totality of features and characteristics of a product or service that bear on its ability to satisfy stated or implied needs. The quality of fish and fish products depends on safe and hygienic practices. Outbreaks of fish-borne illnesses are reduced if appropriate practices are followed when handling, manufacturing, refrigerating and transporting fish and fish products.
Ensuring standards of quality and safety are high also minimizes the post-harvest losses. Adequate training of both industry and control authority staff must be provided by support institutions, and channels for feedback from consumers established.
Ensuring high standards for quality and safety is good economics, minimizing losses that result from spoilage, damage to trade and from illness among consumers. Fish processing highly involves very strict controls and measurements in order to ensure that all processing stages have been carried out hygienically.
Thus, all fish processing companies are highly recommended to join a certain type of food safety system. Although fish quality is not as determinant as fish safety, it has a direct impact on market price. Accurate assessment and prediction of fish quality are of main importance to set prices, increase competitiveness, resolve conflicts of interest and prevent food wastage due to conservative product shelf-life estimations.
In last years, research in food science and technology has focused on developing new methodologies to predict fish freshness. HACCP is a system which identifies hazards and implements measures for their control. It was first developed in by NASA to ensure food safety for the manned space program.
The main objectives of NASA were to prevent food safety problems and control food borne diseases. HACCP has been widely used by food industry since the late and now it is internationally recognized as the best system for ensuring food safety. It is based on the identification of risks, minimizing those risks through the design and layout of the physical environment in which high standards of hygiene can be assured, sets measurable standards and establishes monitoring systems.
HACCP also establishes procedures for verifying that the system is working effectively.
We spend most of our adult lives at work. That time is precious. It strengthens trust, teamwork and engagement—the foundation your team needs to excel. No training is as fun as a FISH! Start seeing your work in a fresh and powerful way!
That first large customer brings your startup much-needed credibility that can help lure future customers and new investors. Perhaps even more important, the big-fish deal likely provides crucial revenue and cash flow your young company desperately needs. But is this always a good thing? How, exactly, do you avoid creating a super-tailored product that lands that critical big customer, but could limit its broader appeal? If you are selling the next great piece of networking equipment, for instance, a company like Comcast—which runs giant cable-TV, phone and Internet networks—is one of the largest whales for you. There will be long sales cycles, complex and costly integrations, and high post-sales support in dealing with this key customer.
Using Tech to Track Data in the Seafood Industry
When I started my business, my main strategy was to get our bottled water products onto the shelves of major supermarkets. After achieving early success with Whole Foods, I assumed the bigger chains would follow, but to my dismay, I soon discovered that the world of retail wasn't so simple. Supermarkets sell groceries to customers, but when it comes to suppliers, they're in the real estate business. And the big beverage corporations had the deeds to the shelving space I was targeting. Though the obvious route to my target customers was closed, I didn't give up. Instead, I found other places to reach my audience and got our products in the cafes and canteens of big tech firms and college campuses. This experience taught me to fish where the fish are.SEE VIDEO BY TOPIC: Primitive Life - Primitive Fishing Skills Build Fish Trap Catch A Lot Of Fish
Leading Russian fish producers are continuing to invest heavily in the expansion of domestic production capacities, which is part of state plans for the increase of production of high-value added fish products in Russia, reports Eugene Gerden. Prior to , the majority of fish produced in Russia, was exported, primarily to Asia Pacific states. That was mainly due to the lack of modern fish processing capacities within Russia itself. As a rule, Russian fish was then re-exported back to Russia in the form of fish products, manufactured in China and Japan with the price tripled during its journey back to Russia. In recent years the situation has changed, as the Russian government has decided to provide quotas on fish production in its territorial waters, conditional on the construction of new processing capacities. This has prompted producers to invest heavily in the building of processing factories. It will be implemented by Norebo, a subsidiary of Karat. The capacity of the production unit is estimated at 50 tonnes per day, focusing on producing of fillets, salted and dried fish. Finished products will be supplied both to the domestic market and the EU states. At present the company fleet consists of 43 medium- and large-tonnage vessels, while its total catch last year amounted to , tonnes.
4 SIMPLE PRACTICES
Fishery is one of the traditional economic sectors of the Murmansk Region and plays an important part in the socioeconomic specialisation of the region. The sector is based upon the fisheries fleet and the onshore complex that includes port facilities, onshore fish-processing enterprises and shipyard companies. About thousand tonnes of aquatic bioresources are harvested each year. At the end of , the Murmansk Region took the first place of all Russian federal entities in the amount of shipped fish production — over RUB 31 bn.
He leads Fish-X, an innovation program supported by the FRDC that aims to accelerate growth in the fisheries sector by helping small businesses bring their ideas to life. Fish-X has two core innovation streams. Some have new products, while others are challenging existing supply chains. Several businesses that have been mentored through the Fish-X accelerator program also participated to provide an update on their business progress and to share their experiences. Tim Parsons says all the micro-hack participants have great ideas and enthusiasm, but a common theme in the sector is that many undervalue their product and could be even more ambitious than they currently are. How many fishers can say that they are operating in the deep ocean off the iconic Great Barrier Reef? For the FRDC, the program is a means to uncover promising ideas. However, even more than that the process can encourage the development of new ways of thinking to foster innovation for new enterprises, but also for the improvement of established ones. In turn, this can benefit the sector as a whole. Since launching in March , X-Lab has already trained more than 50 participants from across industry, research and government via its Fish-X micro-hack workshops, accelerated 10 teams via its.
Plant-based tuna aims to be the future of fish — without the smell
All researchers, fisheries scientists, fisheries students, administrators and libraries in universities and research establishments where fish and fisheries are studied and taught will find this book a valuable addition to their shelves. Commercial and sports fishermen will also find Fish Catching Methods of the World a fascinating and vital reference. Not only has there been great progress in the development of new tools, materials and techniques, but the industry has seen an increasing need to address controversial issues such as declining fish stocks, enormous quantities of bycatch and discard and the impact of towed fishing gear on the environment. Fully revised and updated to reflect such changes, the fourth edition of this widely read and popular book offers: A unique, comprehensive survey of the evolution of fishing methods throughout the world Approximately illustrations showing the extensive range of methods, techniques and equipment used in fishing across the globe Fishing gear classified according to the FAO system Additional chapters: Fishing Effects on Fish Stocks and Environment and Fishery and Gear Research All researchers, fisheries scientists, fisheries students, administrators and libraries in universities and research establishments where fish and fisheries are studied and taught will find this book a valuable addition to their shelves. Appendix Classification of catching methods.
Commercial Fisheries FAQ
Starting, growing, and maintaining a small family business is tough, regardless of the industry you are in. Even the bravest and smartest entrepreneur is climbing a steep mountain: one-third of new ventures close within two years, half within five years, and so on. Only one in four is still around 15 years after opening day. Loki Fish Co. Small food-based businesses like Loki have a special role; they bring diversity, innovation, sustainability, and vitality to local and regional food systems. Big commercial fishing operations must compromise quality in exchange for cost, degrading the value of the food they deliver.
For four centuries, New Englanders have trawled, trapped and caught fish and marine wildlife, and they're now selling it to seafood restaurants across the globe. As we dig into our lobsters and fluke with anticipation, it's hard not to imagine the fisherman who caught our dinner standing on the deck of a ship as it bobs along on a tempestuous sea. It's an evocative image, for sure, but the thought of braving the elements to feed his community is exactly what drove Jared Auerbach, founder and CEO of Red's Best , to the sea.
The fishing industry includes any industry or activity concerned with taking, culturing, processing, preserving, storing, transporting, marketing or selling fish or fish products. It is defined by the Food and Agriculture Organization as including recreational , subsistence and commercial fishing , and the harvesting, processing , and marketing sectors. Directly or indirectly, the livelihood of over million people in developing countries depends on fisheries and aquaculture. There are three principal industry sectors: .
It was once thought that the sea was an inexhaustible source of fish, but over-exploitation has resulted in depleted stocks and damaged marine ecosystems. Billions of people depend upon fishing for food, and thousands more for employment. The prevention of overfishing is paramount to the survival of the industry, those who depend on it, and the natural marine environment.
Fishermen who catch fish by labouring overnight from common-property water bodies do not usually sell fish in retail markets . At the landing point, the number of intermediaries is low. Only one or two intermediaries may approach a fisherman. Once bargaining has started, other intermediaries remain at a distance and wait for their turn to deal, should the first intermediary fail to obtain the fisherman's lot.