Feeding the world in a sustainable way is one of our most pressing challenges in the coming decades. Meat plays a pivotal role in this. Meat is an important source of nutrition for many people around the world. Global demand for meat is growing: over the past 50 years, meat production has more than quadrupled. The world now produces more than million tonnes each year.
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- Meat and Dairy Production
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- Meat and Dairy Production
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Feeding the world in a sustainable way is one of our most pressing challenges in the coming decades. Meat plays a pivotal role in this. Meat is an important source of nutrition for many people around the world. Global demand for meat is growing: over the past 50 years, meat production has more than quadrupled.
The world now produces more than million tonnes each year. But the production of meat has large environmental impacts — increasing greenhouse gas emissions , agricultural land and freshwater use. Seafood production — fish and seafood is another key source of protein and nutrition for populations across the world. How much fish do people eat, and what are the environmental impacts?
Diet compositions — varied diets are essential for good health and nutrition. But the quality and diversity of diets varies significantly across the world. What do people eat? Micronutrient deficiency — poor dietary diversity means many people lack the essential vitamins and minerals they need for good health.
How common is micronutrient deficiency and who is most at risk? In this entry we look in detail at land use across the world. Global meat production has increased rapidly over the past 50 years — as we see, total production has more than quadrupled since The chart shows global meat production by region, measured in tonnes. Regionally, Asia is the largest meat producer, accounting for around percent of total meat production. This regional distribution has changed significantly in recent decades.
In , Europe and North America were the dominant meat producers, accounting for 42 and 25 percent, respectively. In , Asia produced only 12 percent. Production increases in Asia, however, have been staggering: meat production has increased fold since Absolute increases in production in other regions have also been substantial, with output in all regions with exception to the Caribbean which approximately tripled growing more than 5-fold over this period.
However, the distribution of meat types varies significantly across the world; in some countries, other meat types such as wild game, horse, and duck can account for a significant share of total production. Although production of all major meat types have been increasing in absolute terms, in relative terms the share of global meat types have changed significantly over the last 50 years.
In , poultry meat accounted for only 12 percent of global meat production; by its share has approximately tripled to around 35 percent. In comparison, beef and buffalo meat as a share of total meat production has nearly halved, now accounting for around 22 percent. In the chart we see the global production of cattle beef and buffalo meat.
Globally, cattle meat production has more than doubled since — increasing from 28 million tonnes per year to 68 million tonnes in Global production of poultry meat has increased rapidly over the last 50 years, growing more than fold between Global trends in poultry production are shown in the chart. China and Brazil are also large poultry producers at 18 and 13 million tonnes, respectively.
Collectively, Europe is also a major poultry producer with an ouput in of approximately 19 million tonnes — just below output of the United States. China dominates global output, producing just short of half of total pigmeat in Increases in Chinese pigmeat production have been rapid, growing around fold from 1. Global population has underwent rapid growth , especially in the second half of the 20th century; we may therefore also expect the rapid growth in total meat production as explored in the sections above.
But how has meat consumption changed on a per capita basis? In the chart we see a global map of per capita meat excluding seafood and fish consumption, measured in kilograms per person per year.
As a global average, per capita meat consumption has increased approximately 20 kilograms since ; the average person consumed around 43 kilograms of meat in This increase in per capita meat trends means total meat production has been growing at a much faster than the rate of population growth.
The direction and rate of change across countries has highly variable. Growth in per capita meat consumption has been most marked in countries who have underwent a strong economic transition — per capita consumption in China has grown approximately fold since ; rates in Brazil have nearly quadrupled.
The major exception to this pattern has been India: dominant lactovegetarian preferences mean per capita meat consumption in was almost exactly the same as in at less than 4 kilograms per person. Meat consumption is highest across high-income countries with the largest meat-eaters in Australia, consuming around kilograms per person in However, changes in consumption in high-income countries have been much slower — with most stagnating or even decreasing over the last 50 years.
Consumption trends across Africa are varied; some countries consume as low as 10 kilograms per person, around half of the continental average. Higher-income nations such as South Africa consume between kilograms per person. One of the strongest determinants of how much meat people eat is how rich they are. This is at least true when we make cross-country comparisons.
In the scatterplot we see the relationship between per capita meat supply on the y-axis and average GDP per capita on the x-axis. What we see is a strong positive relationship: the richer a country is, the more meat the average person typically eats.
Overall, countries tend to shift upwards and to the right: getting richer and eating more meat. What preferences do we have in terms of the types of meat we eat?
Consumption trends vary significantly across the world. In China, pigmeat accounts for around two-thirds of per capita meat consumption. In Argentina, beef and buffalo meat dominates, accounting for more than half of consumption. Whilst other meat types such as wild game, horse, and rabbit meat account for a very small fraction of meat consumption at the global level, around one-quarter of meat in Gabon comes from such sources this has declined from around 70 percent in The visualization details the total number of livestock animals slaughtered for meat in the given year.
This is shown across various types of livestock. Here these figures represent the total number slaughtered for meat production which does not include those use primarily for dairy or egg production which are not eventually used for meat. In , an estimated 62 billion chickens; 1. This is not to be confused with figures above which represent the total number of livestock animals slaughtered or used for meat in any given year.
You can find data and research on fish and seafood production and consumption across the world in our entry here. This is measured in mass quantities — such as tonnes or kilograms. These sheets account for losses and allocations in the food system, including imports, exports, stock variations, seed, animal feed, other industrial uses , and food losses.
To derive the average per capita food supply, this total figure is divided by the population size. This figure can be considered to be the average level of food intake however it does not account for food wastage at the consumer level i. Feed conversion ratio FCR is used to measure the mass quantity of feed required to produce one kilogram of animal product e.
For example, on average, we have to feed cattle 25 kilograms of feed to produce one kilogram of beef or buffalo meat — this would give us an FCR value of 0. The same calculation process applies for energy conversion efficiency using caloric inputs and outputs. Environmental footprints, such as those defined as land use requirements or greenhouse gas emissions per unit mass, protein or calorie of food products are calculated using a process called life-cycle analysis LCA.
LCA methods are used to try to fully capture all environmental impacts across the value chain, and can include those up and downstream of production. This includes food chain inputs such as fertilizer production and application, seed production, energy use on-farm, feed production, manure production if used as fertilizer , manure management, farm infrastructure construction.
Life-cycle analyses LCAs attempt to fully quantity all such inputs necessary for the production of a food production. Summary The world now produces more than four times the quantity of meat as it did fifty years ago. In , production was around million tonnes.
Pigmeat is the most popular meat globally, but the production of poultry is increasing most rapidly. Tens of billions of chickens; billions of pigs; and hundreds of millions of sheep, goats and cattle are slaughtered each year for meat. The average person in the world consumed around 43 kilograms of meat in This ranges from over kg in the US and Australia to only 5kg in India.
Meat consumption increases as the world is getting richer. The world now produces around million tonnes of milk each year — more than double the amount fifty years ago. Richer countries tend to consume more milk per person. The amount of meat produced for a given animal varies significantly across the world based on production systems. Livestock production has large environmental impacts on greenhouse gas emissions, land and water use. Beef and lamb have much larger environmental impact than pigmeat and poultry.
Meat production by region. Click to open interactive version. In the chart we see how meat production has changed by livestock type since Beef and buffalo cattle meat production.
Poultry production. Pigmeat production. Since , global pigmeat production has grown fold to million tonnes in Global livestock numbers over the long-term. Number of cattle. Number of poultry birds. Number of pigs. Seafood production You can find data and research on fish and seafood production and consumption across the world in our entry here.
Cattle meat per animal. Poultry meat per animal.
Make payments or register online to renew or obtain new licenses by selecting a keyword which best matches your license needs below. After selecting a keyword you will be taken to our online payment center where you will be required to log in before entering any payments. Through a cooperative federal-state program, the Florida Agricultural Statistics Service FASS gathers agricultural data and compiles current statistics. This service is provided in cooperation with the U. FASS provides producers of agricultural commodities with unbiased and reliable information to assist them in making production and marketing decisions.
FAO sets the record straight–86% of livestock feed is inedible by humans
Image credit: Shutterstock. Research published in the journal Science highlights the environmental impacts of thousands of food producers and their products, demonstrating the need for new technology to monitor agriculture, and the need for environmental labels on food products. Researchers at Oxford University and the Swiss agricultural research institute, Agroscope, have created the most comprehensive database yet on the environmental impacts of nearly 40, farms, and 1, processors, packaging types, and retailers. This allows them to assess how different production practices and geographies lead to different environmental impacts for 40 major foods. They found large differences in environmental impact between producers of the same product. High-impact beef producers create kg of CO2 equivalents and use m2 of land per grams of protein, a huge 12 and 50 times greater than low-impact beef producers.
A classification of livestock production systems H. Steinfeld and J. Definition of systems Description of systems Conclusions Bibliography The objective of this article is to describe a classification of the world's livestock systems based on a recent study carried out by the Animal Production and Health Division AGA of FAO. The results form a valuable basis for priority setting in AGA's new programme of work, which will be based on a systems approach starting from the biennium. They were originally used as the basis for the environmental impact assessment of an FAO-coordinated global multidonor study on interactions between livestock production systems and the environment. The results are useful in a general discussion of livestock development. Full statistics and descriptions are contained in the forthcoming FAO publication World livestock production systems. The classification covers the following animal species: cattle, buffalo, sheep, goat, pig and chicken.
Comparison of the calorie content of plants and of animal products
Or, if those grains were exported, it would boost the U. With only grass-fed livestock, individual Americans would still get more than the recommended daily allowance RDA of meat and dairy protein, according to Pimentel's report, "Livestock Production: Energy Inputs and the Environment. An environmental analyst and longtime critic of waste and inefficiency in agricultural practices, Pimentel depicted grain-fed livestock farming as a costly and nonsustainable way to produce animal protein. He distinguished grain-fed meat production from pasture-raised livestock, calling cattle-grazing a more reasonable use of marginal land.
The EAT-Lancet report summarizes scientific evidence for a global food system transition towards healthy diets from sustainable agriculture. The report concludes that a global shift towards a diet made up of high quantities of fruits, vegetables and plant-based protein and low quantities of animal protein could catalyze the achievement of both the 17 Sustainable Development Goals SDGs and the landmark Paris Agreement to combat climate change. Particularly criticized is the low efficiency of livestock to convert feed into human edible protein and the competition for the use of cereals as livestock feed or for direct human food. Animal food sources make a vital contribution to global nutrition and are an excellent source of macro- and micronutrients. Livestock use large areas of pastures where nothing else could be produced. Animals also add to agricultural production through manure production and drought power. Further, keeping livestock provides a secure source of income for over million poor people in many in rural areas. Animal production, in its many forms, plays an integral role in the food system, making use of marginal lands, turning co-products into edible goods, contributing to crop productivity and turning edible crops into highly nutritious, protein-rich food. Quantifying the land and biomass resources engaged in livestock production and the food output they generate, but also improving our modelling capacity by including trends in consumer preferences, shifts in animal species, climate change impacts, and industrial processes to improve the human edibility of certain feed materials is arguably basic information needed as part of further research into the challenge of sustainably feeding 9. Should we eat red meat?
Animal By-Products Disposal
The world's livestock sector is undergoing a massive transformation, fuelled by high demand for meat and milk, which in developing countries is likely to double over the next two decades. Global food demand is shifting from grains and other staple crops to processed food and high-value agricultural products, such as vegetables, fruits, meat and dairy. The major driving force behind this soaring demand for livestock products is a combination of population growth, urbanization and income growth and the increasing demand for variety to meet the changing consumer preferences, especially in emerging economies in Asia and Latin America. The changes in production, procurement, processing and retailing of food, along with environmental and food safety concerns, erosion of animal genetic resources, climate change and the risk of emerging infectious diseases, threaten the potential of the small-scale farmer to benefit from the on-going livestock revolution. The Animal Production and Health Sub-programme assists Member States to improve livestock productivity through the efficient use of locally available feed resources, adequate management practices and breeding programmes for indigenous and upgraded animals, and diagnostic tools and prophylactic measures for the control and prevention of animal and zoonotic diseases. If future food demand is to be met, increased outputs will have to come mainly from intensified and more efficient use of the land, water and plant and animal genetic potential, fisheries and forestry resources that smallholder farmer in developing and transition countries have at their disposal. Smallholder farms around the world are home to approximately two billion people, making up one third of the global population thus representing a major component of local and national consumption and international trade. Promoting livestock production sustainability - through integrated approaches The world's livestock sector is undergoing a massive transformation, fuelled by high demand for meat and milk, which in developing countries is likely to double over the next two decades. Resources Databases Meetings Publications Multimedia.
Livestock production: recent trends, future prospects
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New estimates of the environmental cost of food
The following list, derived from the statistics of the Food and Agriculture Organization FAO unless otherwise noted, lists the most important agricultural products produced by the countries of the world. The data in this article, unless otherwise noted, is for The value and production of individual crops varies substantially from year to year as prices fluctuate on the world and country markets and weather and other factors influence production. From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia.
Meat and Dairy Production
All the contents of www. The Project envisages the development of a common methodology for the preparation, storage, dissemination and evaluation of scientific literature in electronic format. As the project develops, new journal titles are being added in the library collection.
List of most valuable crops and livestock products
ANNEX 1. The principles set out in this Annex should have been applied on the parcels, farm or farm units during a conversion period of at least two years before sowing, or in the case of perennial crops other than grassland, at least three 3 years before the first harvest of products as referred to in paragraph 1. The competent authority, or where delegated, the official or officially recognized certification body or authority may decide in certain cases such as idle use for two years or more to extend or reduce that period in the light of previous parcel use but the period must equal or exceed 12 months.
Meat and Dairy Production
United States. Committee on Agriculture. Subcommittee on Livestock and Grains.