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- Sharpening fixture “Profile”
- Textile, Textile Product, and Apparel Manufacturing Industries
- Universal Leather enters alliance to show in China
- The rationale behind using natural polymeric materials in shoe production
- «Vakhrushi-Yuft» Ltd.
- Utilization of Cotton Spinning Mill Wastes in Yarn Production
Remember Me. The awards are based around creativity and innovation with leather in a final year collection. Overall 4…. Leather Manufacturing Process. And the Lord God made clothes out of animal skins for Adam and his wife, Genesis The use of hides and skins, tanned or untanned, as useful articles has been with us for thousands of years. Tanning, in simple terms, refers to the treatment of raw hides and skins with tanning substances to render the material immune to bacterial attack, ie to produce leather.
Additional changes introduced in the process of tanning are secondary and are related to the tanning and retanning chemicals used. There are hundreds of different leather types and tens of thousands of different chemicals to choose from when producing these leathers. The most important chemicals in the tanning process are the tanning agents as they define the process of leather manufacture as a whole. In this modern day and age, tanners will choose tanning chemicals based on price, convenience of use, environmental issues, and by matching the physical and aesthetic properties introduced by the tanning chemicals to the desired leather properties of the end product.
Hides and skins are primarily composed of water, protein and fatty materials. After slaughter, hides and skins must be temporarily preserved for shipment and storage prior to tanning. The most common commercial method of preservation is to cure the hides and skins using salt to produce a dehydrated wet-salted or dry-salted material. Other methods of tanning will have significantly different production flow although if the material to be produced is without hair, wool or scales, the preparation and isolation of the collagen in the beamhouse processes will remain largely similar.
The use of drums as process vessels but paddles, pits and mixers are also common. Leather manufacture is usually divided into three or four zones but this may vary slightly according to processing and the perspective from which it is viewed. Tanning primarily involves the reaction of tanning chemicals with collagen, raw hides contain a number of undesirable components, which are commonly removed prior to tanning.
Preparation of the raw pelt includes the processes from soaking to pickling. Soaking Soaking is usually the first process encountered in the tannery, as the previously dehydrated raw material must be carefully rehydrated before it can be subjected to extended mechanical action. Water is also the vehicle for both chemical penetration and removal, and is a necessary prerequisite for most of the processes to follow.
Soaking also assists in the removal of curing agents, non-structural proteins and fats. The flesh layer is removed mechanically to aid an even and full penetration of the chemicals to follow. Fleshing is commonly done after slaughter, after soaking, or after liming. Unhairing and Liming The majority of leathers produced are treated in order to remove the hair or wool to leave the characteristic pattern of the grain surface analogous to wood grain. Conventionally, the hides or skins are treated with sodium sulphide and hydrated lime to destroy the keratinous material of the epidermis and hair or wool.
Fats are hydrolysed due to the increased pH and the skin structure swells as water is drawn into the fibre network to form a turgid, open-structured, translucent, jelly-like material.
Deliming and Bating Weak acids are used to lower the pH and to reduce swelling which causes the water to flush out any impurities with it. The skin becomes flaccid and is treated with proteolytic bating enzymes to clean the grain and make the pelt smooth and silky. At this stage, the isolated collagen, termed the pickled pelt, is ready for a pretannage or man tannage.
This includes processes from pretanning and tanning through to retaining via samming, splitting, shaving and neutralisation as a preparation for the dye house.
Pretanning The pickled pelt may be lightly tanned prior to the main tannage to improve the penetration and distribution of the tanning chemicals to follow, to add specific properties into the leather or to stabilise it for mechanical operations such as shaving.
Tanning The main tannage has the primary function of producing an utilisable material resistant to microbial attack. The most common chemical used in tanning are chromium tanning salts, vegetable tannins and more recently glutaraldehyde. After the tanning agent has penetrated the collagen structure and distributed satisfactorily, it must be irreversibly bound to the collagen eg a process called basification, in which the pH is raided, is used to bind chromium and glutaraldeyde tanning agents to the collagen.
Mechanical Operations At some point during production, the leather is split longitudinally to yield an upper grain split and a lower flesh split of desired thickness. In the production of chromium tanned leathers, this process is most commonly performed after basification and samming. The material is then shaved to give a more accurate and even thickness depending on the requirements for the end products eg shoe upper 1.
Neutralisation The mechanical operations generally squeeze water out of the leather, so prior to further treatment a wetting back and washing process is used to rehydrate the leather and to remove dirt, shavings or grease that may have been picked up. The majority of the chemicals still to be added to the leather are anionic in nature, whereas the tanned collagen at low pH tends to be cationic in nature. Neutralisation is a process in which the pH is raised and chemicals are added to reduce the stringency of the leather to anionic chemicals such as retanning agents, dyes and fat liquors.
Retanning The tanned leather is subjected to additional tannages with similar or new tanning materials. These agents may be used to lighten the colour of the leather, to produce a feeling of fullness and to aid in the penetration of dyes. The choice of pretanning, tanning and retanning chemicals is dependent on the properties desired in the final leather, and therefore, on the properties required in the final leather product. This stage includes preparing the retanned material for finishing by processing through to dried crust.
Dyeing Chromium tanned leather is blue in colour and must be dyed to obtain the desired colour. The dye acts as a base colour for finishing, and the depth of dye penetration and leather colour are of great importance. Fatliquoring Chromium tanned material dries out hard and crusty and is unsuitable for most purposes. Small quantities of oil, present as emulsions known as fatliquors, make a significant difference to the handle, ie the fullness, softness and flexibility, among other factors.
The final binding of chemicals is encouraged by the drying process. Batches of leather are commonly toggle dried on frames in heated tunnels for four to six hours or are vacuum dried individually for two to ten minutes. Drying is usually followed by buffing, conditioning and staking or milling. The resultant curst material is resistant to microbial attack and contains all the leathering properties desired of leather and is ready for finishing.
The finish may be required to hide defects, to contribute to the leather beauty and properties and to provide fashion effects. Resins, pigments, dyes, handle modifiers, fillers, dullers and other chemicals are added in layers to the surface of the leather by spraying, roller-coating, curtain-coating or by hand. Heated hydraulic or roller presses are used to produce smooth or patterned leathers, depending on customer requirements.
Finishing finally completes the leather manufacturing process and the area is then measured and the leather sent for dispatch to a product manufacturer to be turned into shoes, clothing or upholstery.
View All Events. Lisbeth Bakewell received the donation. This is the first award from funds donated by individual liverymen and is made in memory of Liveryman Arabella Cooke. The money has been raised by individual Liverymen donations. Registered Charity Number: Remember Me Forgotten your Login details? Member Login. Jun May And the Lord God made clothes out of animal skins for Adam and his wife, Genesis The use of hides and skins, tanned or untanned, as useful articles has been with us for thousands of years.
January 14 am - pm. Twitter Leathersellers Co Leathersellers.
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Sharpening fixture “Profile”
The textile, textile product, and apparel manufacturing industries include establishments that process fiber into fabric and fabric into clothing and other textile products. While most apparel manufacturers worldwide rely on people to cut and sew pieces of fabric together, U. Because the apparel industry has moved mainly to other countries with cheaper labor costs, that which remains in the United States must be extremely labor efficient to compete effectively with foreign manufacturers. Goods and services. The establishments in these industries produce a variety of goods, some of which are sold to the consumer, while others are sold as inputs to the manufacture of other products. Natural and synthetic fibers are used to produce threads and yarns—which may be woven, knitted, or pressed or otherwise bonded into fabrics—as well as rope, cordage, and twine.
Textile, Textile Product, and Apparel Manufacturing Industries
Efficient use of natural resources and utilization of recoverable wastes are getting more and more important day by day since recovering wastes have both economic and environmental benefits. As the source material costs constitute the majority of the yarn production costs, decreasing raw material costs provide considerable advantages for spinners. From the point of textile manufacturing, various production wastes can be reused in textile industry. Compared to research on r-PET, recovered cotton fibers inspired interest recently. The main objective of this study is to fill the gap in the literature via investigating the properties of the yarns produced with recovered cotton wastes, generated in different sources.
Occupational Outlook Handbook, The Occupational Outlook Handbook OOH for short is revised and updated every two years -- it's consistently one of the most up-to-date occupational references available. JIST's editions have sold tens of thousands of copies in the trade, and once again, JIST will offer a quality reprint to the trade in both soft-and hardcover editions. The OOH is one of the best-known government publications. It's used by job seekers for career exploration and for resume and interview preparation. Counselors, teachers, and career coaches refer to it in their work with students and clients, and many who work in education and business settings routinely purchase the newest OOH edition. The book is an excellent resource for career-related activities and interests, and business people refer to the OOH when writing job descriptions, among other uses. Thorough descriptions include nature of work, working conditions, employment, training, qualifications, advancement, ten-year job outlook, earnings, related occupations, and sources of additional information.
Universal Leather enters alliance to show in China
Remember Me. The awards are based around creativity and innovation with leather in a final year collection. Overall 4….
Through the multi-stage sharpening using the "Profile" system, consistently replacing coarse abrasives to smaller, you get almost perfect sharp blade. Body, hinge joint, abrasive holder, a parking device, clamp, wrenches, manual. Clamps are not included. Rotating symmetric clamp for double-sided sharpening without knife repositioning. The clamp system allows to clamp the knifes with complex blade geometry hard and symmetrically. The jaw width is 32mm. It is recommended to use for short knives sharpening with length till mm. There is a rotating symmetric clamp for double-sided sharpening without knife repositioning. The clamp system allows to clamp knifes with complex blade geometry hard and symmetrically. It has a mechanism for independent repositioning of clamping jaws. The minimum distance between the jaws is 40 mm, the maximum is mm.
The rationale behind using natural polymeric materials in shoe production
The first of four articles on the manufacturing of leather provides a general background to those who buy or sell leather for products. Background information on the manufacture of leather and its various properties and attributes will enhance product knowledge where it can make a difference — for example, in making a sale, understanding a problem or the limitations of the material. Leather has been produced for thousands of years, ever since man discovered that animal skins in contact with other materials, extracted by water from bark, wood or leaves, preserved the skins from decay. The earliest known tanneries date back over 5, years according to evidence found during excavations in the Egyptian settlement of Ghebelen. Today leather is made in an estimated 9, tanneries worldwide. The annual area of leather produced is 19, million square feet, an average of around 2 million square feet per tannery. The size and standard of tanneries vary massively.
Construct, decorate, or repair leather and leather-like products, such as luggage, shoes, and saddles. Most workers learn through on-the-job training. This group ranks among the rapidly declining occupations because of increases in imports, offshore assembly, productivity gains from automation, and new fabrics that do not need as much processing. Earnings of most workers are low. A high school diploma is sufficient for most jobs in textile, apparel, and furnishings occupations.
Utilization of Cotton Spinning Mill Wastes in Yarn Production
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It is engaged in manufacturing and sale of chrome-tanned leather and yuft. Now in the assortment of the enterprise a large number of types of leather. History of leather-making in Vakhrushi has started in , when a year-old Timofey Vakhrushev organized a small handicraft plant for cattle hide finishing and manufacturing.
This application is a continuation-in-part of my earlier application S. Simulated patent leather finish on plastic sheet materials have been Vmade heretofore by press-polishing rtechnique. This procedure involves cutting the plastic sheet material into pieces the size of the platen in the press, usually about 24" x 48". The alternating layers of the plastic sheets and highly polished metal plates are kept under pressure at an elevated temperature -for several minutes and then cooled to room temperature while under pressure for several additional minutes before removing from the press.
Ветры и дожди перемололи в пыль последние горы, а новых слишком усталый мир уже не мог породить. Но городу было все равно.