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How To Make Soft DrinksVIDEO ON THE TOPIC: A brief history of alcohol - Rod Phillips
Absolute Ethanol - A pharmaceutical term for anhydrous ethanol. It is generally defined as having less than 1 per cent water.
Acetaldehyde - Otherwise known as ethanal, acetic aldehyde or ethylaldehyde. A clear flammable liquid with a characteristic pungent odor. It is miscible with both ethanol and water.
It has a narcotic effect on humans, and large doses may cause death by respiratory paralysis. It is a congener in the production of ethanol by fermentation, and is usually a major constituent of the heads fraction removed in rectification. Additives - Chemicals added to fuel in very small quantities to improve and maintain fuel quality. Detergents and corrosion inhibitors are examples of gasoline additives. Acid Hydrolysis - The hydrolysis of a polymer by the use of acid. In the case of starch hydrolysis, acids may be used as an alternative to enzymes in either or both the liquefaction or saccharification processes.
Acid numbers higher than 0. Acid Washing - A process in which yeast recovered from a finished fermentation is acidified to reduce the level of bacterial contamination, prior to recycling into a new fermentation. ADP Alternate Delivery Procedures - A provision of many energy futures contracts that allows for both sides of the futures market to make deliveries under terms and conditions which differ markedly from those described by the strict delivery rules. ADP's always occur following the expiration of contracts for the spot month, after deliveries have been matched.
Ad Valorem Tax - A charge levied on persons or organizations based on the value of transaction. It is normally a given percentage of the price at the retail or manufacturing stage and is a common form of sales tax; e. This includes hypid power systems and fuel cells, as well as some specialized electric vehicles.
Treasury, Alcohol, Tobacco and Tax bureau. Aguardiente - An unaged alcoholic beverage produced in Central and South America by the distillation of beer derived from the fermentation of sugar-cane juice or molasses. It is similar to a crude rum.
Residual methanol in the fuel is a safety issue, because even very small amounts reduce the flash point; can affect fuel pumps, seals, and elastomers; and can result in poor combustion properties. The intent of the alcohol control requirement is to limit methanol to less than 0.
Alcohols - Organic compounds that are distinguished from hydrocarbons by the inclusion of a hydroxyl group. The two simplest alcohols are methanol and ethanol. Alcohol and Alcohol Blends - Family name of a group of organic chemical compounds composed of carbon, hydrogen and oxygen. Examples are methanol, ethanol and tertiary butyl alcohol. Alcohol and alcohol blends are added to gasoline in order to make it burn cleaner.
Aldehydes - A class of organic compounds derived by removing the hydrogen atoms from an alcohol. Aldehydes can be produced from the oxidation of an alcohol. Allowed Rate of Return - The rate of return that a regulatory commission allows on a rate base in establishing just and reasonable rates for a utility.
It is usually based on the composite cost of financing rate base from debt, preferred stock, and common equity. Alpha Amylase - An enzyme used in the liquefaction of starch, in the grain-mashing process, prior to saccharification and fermentation. Alpha amylase hydrolyzes the long-chain starch molecules into short-chain dextrins.
These are more suitable for subsequent saccharification by other enzymes to fermentable glucose. Alpha amylase is an endo-enzyme in that it works from the inside of the amylose molecule, peaking it down more-or-less randomly. In beverage-alcohol production, the alpha amylase enzyme may be derived from malt sprouted barley , but in fuel-ethanol production, the enzyme is obtained solely as a bacterial product. The enzyme molecule contains a calcium atom which is essential for its activity.
Energy Policy Act, any dedicated, flexible-fuel, or dual-fuel vehicle designed to operate on at least one alternative fuel. American Society for Testing and Materials ASTM - A nonprofit organization that provides a management system to develop published technical information. ASTM standards, test methods, specifications, and procedures are recognized as definitive guidelines for motor fuel quality as well as a poad range of other products and procedures. Amyl Alcohol - The principal constituent of fusel oil.
Otherwise known as pentanol. Chemical formula C5H11OH. Eight isomers exist, the commonest being primary iso-amyl alcohol. Amylase - The name given to any enzyme which hydrolyzes or peaks down amylose, which is a major component of starch. Amylose - A major component of starch together with amylopectin. The amylose molecule is composed of straight chains of hundreds of glucose units. In the grain-mashing process for ethanol production, amylose may first be poken down into short-chain dextrins by alpha amylase, which are, in turn, poken down into single glucose units by amyloglucosidase.
Anhydrous - Describes a compound that does not contain any water. Ethanol produced for fuel use is often referred to as anhydrous ethanol, as it has had almost all water removed.
The ANSI federation consists of nine hundred companies, large and small, and some two hundred trade, technical, professional, labor, and consumer organizations. Antibiotic - A chemical substance produced by micro-organisms, that has the capacity to inhibit the growth of other micro-organisms, or to destroy them.
The antibiotic most commonly used in ethanol production is penicillin. Any Current Month - OPIS prices labeled as "any current month" represent transactions for product that buyer and seller agree will be delivered at any time during the current calendar month. Any Delivery Any - Spot market terminology for deliveries that can be made at any time during the month at the seller's discretion. Spot market prices will often be tied to the delivery stipulations termed Prompt, Out , or Any.
API American Petroleum Institute - A trade association comprised of larger, integrated oil companies that works for the common goals of the oil industry. API Gravity - Industry scale expressing the gravity or density of liquid petroleum products.
Light crudes generally exceed 38 degrees API and heavy crudes are commonly labeled as all crudes with an API gravity of 22 degrees or below. Intermediate crudes fall in the range of 22 degrees to 38 degrees API gravity. This report compiles changes in domestic petroleum production, imports, refining, capacity and product movements into and out of primary storage. Traders use this information to access supply and demand on a week-to-week basis.
These figures are usually released Tuesday afternoons. The release of these reports are often a catalyst for movement on the futures market. Aquavit - A name applied to various types of distilled spirits in northern Europe. In Germany it may apply to grape pandy. In Denmark it may apply to grain spirits flavored with caraway. In Sweden it may apply to grain spirits flavored with aniseed and dill. Arbitrage - The buying, selling, and exchange of petroleum products or crude oil in different markets with the express design to take advantage of location, product, and timing differentials.
Traders looking to move U. Gulf Coast No. Aromatics - Hydrocarbons characterized by their uniform carbon ring structure and their often pleasant aroma. Commercial petroleum aromatics are benzene, toluene, and xylene. These three are often referred to by the acronym BTX.
These chemicals are used as high octane components in gasoline. Aromatics have been judged to be undesirable in some finished motor fuels with various state and federal regulations geared toward reducing their levels. CARB diesel fuel in the state of California mandates a low aromatics composition.
Gives the poker the discretion to use his expertise to execute the contract, regardless of where the market moves, between when the order is given and execution is made. At the Money Option - Refers to the state which may piefly exist when the options strike price and the futures price intersect. A 90cts gal December call or put is "at the money" when the futures price is at 90cts gal. Azeotrope - The term used to describe a constant-boiling mixture.
It is a mixture of two or more components which has a lower boiling point than either or any component alone. The vapor of the mixture has the same composition as the liquid, and therefore, no further concentration can be achieved by normal distillation. Azeotropic distillation - A distillation process in which a liquid compound entrainer is added to the mixture to be separated to form an azeotrope with one or more of the components.
Normally the entrainer selected is easily separated from the component to be removed. For example, when benzene is used in azeotropic distillation to dehydrate ethanol, the overhead condensate phase-separates to yield a water-rich layer that can be withdrawn and a benzene-ethanol layer which is refluxed. For example, the enzyme which peaks down amylose is referred to as an amylase.
BTX - Industry term referring to the group of aromatic hydrocarbons—benzene, toluene and xylene see aromatics. Backwardation - Term that describes a market which features higher prices for prompt delivery than for forward material. Also referred to as an inverted market, this scenario offers no return for storage. Bacteria Singular: Bacterium - Any of a large group of microscopic plants constituting the class Schizomycetaceae, having round, rod-like, spiral, or filamentous single-celled bodies that are often aggregated into colonies, are often motile by means of flagella, and reproduce by fission or by the formation of asexual resting spores.
They may live in soil, water, organic matter, or the live bodies of plants and animals. In ethanol production, bacteria are significant in that they compete with yeast to ferment the available sugars in a mash to products other than ethanol, and cause losses in yield. However, some bacterial cultures may be added deliberately to rum fermentations, to help produce certain desired congeners. One genus of bacteria, Zymomonas is currently being examined commercially, for its ability to ferment sugars to ethanol.
Bacteria Contamination - The condition occurring when undesirable bacteria become established in a fermenting mash and reduce the ethanol yield. The bacteria use sugars to produce various compounds congeners , particularly acids, which may inhibit yeast activity.
In severe situations, bacterial contamination may cause serious economic losses.
Contents - Previous - Next. The flour produced from the cassava plant, which on account of its low content of noncarbohydrate constituents might well be called a starch, is known in world trade as tapioca flour. It is used directly, made into a group of baked or gelatinized products or manufactured into glucose, dextrins and other products. Starchy foods have always been one of the staples of the human diet.
History Of Soda
NCBI Bookshelf. Alcohol Consumption and Ethyl Carbamate. Most cultures throughout the world have traditionally consumed some form of alcoholic beverages for thousands of years, and local specialty alcoholic beverages still account for the majority of all those that exist. Only a small number have evolved into commodities that are produced commercially on a large scale. In world trade, beer from barley, wine from grapes and certain distilled beverages are sold as commodities.
Chicago Will Be the Ingredients Capital in July
Absolute Ethanol - A pharmaceutical term for anhydrous ethanol. It is generally defined as having less than 1 per cent water. Acetaldehyde - Otherwise known as ethanal, acetic aldehyde or ethylaldehyde. A clear flammable liquid with a characteristic pungent odor. It is miscible with both ethanol and water. It has a narcotic effect on humans, and large doses may cause death by respiratory paralysis. It is a congener in the production of ethanol by fermentation, and is usually a major constituent of the heads fraction removed in rectification.SEE VIDEO BY TOPIC: Making toilet paper moonshine
Food and beverage services sector contributes a great deal to the profits in hospitality industry. With the increase in importance of business meetings, a range of personal and social events, a large number of customers visit catering establishments frequently. Food and Beverage Services can be broadly defined as the process of preparing, presenting and serving of food and beverages to the customers. The customer visits the premise to avail the food service. The most known commercial catering establishments are — hotels, all kinds of restaurants, lounges, cafeterias, pubs, clubs, and bars. These establishments often run under contracts. For example, food and beverage services provided at hospitals, hostels, and prisons. In this tutorial, we mainly consider commercial food and beverage service sector. Catering is the business of providing foods and beverage service to the people at a remote location.
The production of alcohol beverages is a process that involves the active participation of microorganisms, most often yeasts. Humans have been producing alcoholic beverages for thousands of years. The production of alcohol in these drinks is based primarily on yeast fermentation. Yeasts are eukaryotic microorganisms that ferment variety of sugars from different sources into the final products of carbon dioxide and alcohol. Wine is made from grapes or other fruit. The grapes are first cleaned of leaves and stems and the fruit is crushed into must that is ready for fermentation. The yeasts used for the fermentation grow a film on the fruit or in the environment. These wild strains play an important role in the final properties of the drink. However, cultivated strains of Saccharomyces cerevisiae are often added to improve the consistency of the final product. There are hundreds of commercially available yeast strains for wine fermentation. Wine grapes : The white film that covers the grapes contains wild yeasts.
Food and Beverage Services - Quick Guide
The beverage industry consists of two major categories and eight sub-groups. The non-alcoholic category is comprised of soft drink syrup manufacture; soft drink and water bottling and canning; fruit juices bottling, canning and boxing; the coffee industry and the tea industry. Alcoholic beverage categories include distilled spirits, wine and brewing. Although many of these beverages, including beer, wine and tea, have been around for thousands of years, the industry has developed only over the past few centuries. The beverage products industry, viewed as an aggregate group, is highly fragmented. This is evident by the number of manufacturers, methods of packaging, production processes and final products. The soft drink industry is the exception to the rule, as it is quite concentrated. Although the beverage industry is fragmented, ongoing consolidation since the s is changing that. This shift began when companies in this manufacturing sector adopted mass production techniques that let them expand. Also during this time period there were advances in product packaging and processes that greatly increased product shelf life.
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This site is for general and professional educational purposes. Information on the basics of Economic Botany. Beverage Plants and Beverages. There has always been a search for beverages that are palatable and refreshing.
Be sure to check your liquor store for coffee liqueurs that are cheaper than Kahlua. Making healthy drink choices is as important as your food choices. Sarsaparilla is a soft drink, originally made from plants like the Smilax ornata, but now sometimes made with artificial flavors. Mixing Equipment.
Abstract You know there is sugar in non-diet soda, but just how much sugar? Sure, you can look on the ingredients label, but how do food scientists actually measure the amount of sugar in a solution?.
A drink or beverage is a liquid intended for human consumption. In addition to their basic function of satisfying thirst , drinks play important roles in human culture.