Metallurgical and Materials Transactions A. First, the historic evolution of different alloys is discussed. Then, the microstructural features responsible for different mechanical properties are identified and discussed. The role of alloying additions is discussed.
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- Building & Construction
- Aluminum alloys for aerospace
- The Evolution of Al-Li Base Products for Aerospace and Space Applications
- Most Common Uses of Aluminum
- Nonferrous Aircraft Metals – Aluminum and Aluminum Alloys
- Aluminium alloy
- Most Common Uses of Aluminum
- Advantages And Disadvantages Of Aluminium As A Building Material
- Aluminum Alloys
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Building & ConstructionVIDEO ON THE TOPIC: Aluminium - The Material That Changed The World
Last updated: April 16, S uppose you had to design the perfect material—what would it be like? You'd probably want it to be plentiful and relatively inexpensive, strong and lightweight, easy to combine with other materials, resistant to heat and corrosion, and a good conductor of electricity.
In short, you'd probably come up with a material like aluminum spelled aluminium in some countries—and that's also the official IUPAC spelling.
We all see and use aluminum every day without even thinking about it. Disposable drinks cans are made from it and so is cooking foil.
You can find this ghostly gray-white metal in some pretty amazing places, from jet engines in airplanes to the hulls of hi-tech warships. What makes aluminum such a brilliantly useful material? Let's take a closer look! Photo: Aluminum is a wonderfully weather-proof material. Courthouse in Urbana, Illinois, United States. Photo by Carol M.
Highsmith, courtesy of Photographs in the Carol M. Aluminum is soft, lightweight, fire-proof and heat-resistant, easy to work into new shapes, and able to conduct electricity. It reflects light and heat very effectively and it doesn't rust.
It reacts easily with other chemical elements, especially oxygen, and readily forms an outer layer of aluminum oxide if you leave it in the air. We call these things aluminum's physical and chemical properties. Photo: The experimental aluminum Ford Sable car, produced over 20 years ago in , was kg lbs lighter than a comparable steel -bodied car and considerably more energy efficient.
Today, as fuel economy becomes ever more important, full-bodied aluminum cars are becoming much more common especially in the high-end, luxury market. The aluminum content of a typical car is expected to double by , according to the Aluminum Association. Aluminum really comes into its own when you combine it with other metals to make aluminum alloys an alloy is a metal mixed together with other elements to make a new material with improved properties—it might be stronger or it might melt at a higher temperature.
A few of the metals commonly used to make aluminum alloys include boron, copper , lithium, magnesium, manganese, silicon, tin , and zinc. You mix aluminum with one or more of these depending on the job you're trying to do. Aluminum can be combined with other materials in a quite different way in composites hybrid materials made from two or more materials that retain their separate identity without chemically combining, mixing, or dissolving.
So, for example, aluminum can act as the "background material" matrix in what's called a metal matrix composite MMC , reinforced with particles of silicon carbide, to make a strong, stiff, lightweight material suitable for a wide variety of aerospace, electronic, and automobile uses—and crucially better than aluminum alone. Chart: Aluminum consumption in the United States. Transportation planes, ships, trucks, and cars is now by far the biggest single use for the metal and its alloys.
February Pure aluminum is very soft. If you want to make something stronger but still lightweight, hard-wearing, and able to survive the high temperatures in an airplane or car engine , you mix aluminum and copper. For food packaging, you don't need anything like the same strength, but you do need a material that's easy to shape and seal. You get those qualities by alloying aluminum with magnesium.
Suppose you want to carry electricity over long distances from power plants to homes and factories. You could use copper, which is generally the best conductor carrier of electricity, but it's heavy and expensive.
Aluminum might be an option, but it doesn't carry electricity so readily. One solution is to make power cables from aluminum alloyed with boron, which conducts electricity almost as well as copper but is a great deal lighter and less droopy on hot days.
Typically, aluminum alloys contain 90—99 percent aluminum. Photo: Ready for recycling: These squashed mats of aluminum cans are called biscuits. They're ready to melt down and recycle. According to the Aluminum Association , nearly 70 percent of the aluminum ever mined is still in use today, thanks to effective recycling programs.
It's much cheaper and more environmentally friendly to recycle used aluminum than to dig bauxite from the ground and process it: recycling saves about 95 percent of the energy that would be needed to make brand new aluminum.
Photo courtesy of US Air Force. Aluminum reacts so readily with oxygen that you never naturally find it in its pure form. Instead, compounds of aluminum exist in huge quantities in Earth's crust as an ore raw rocky material called bauxite. This is the common name for hydrated alumina, a substance typically made from about two thirds aluminum oxide chemical formula Al 2 O 3 with one third water molecules H 2 O locked into its crystal structure.
Depending on where on Earth it's found, bauxite also contains a range of different impurities such as iron oxide, silicon oxide, and titanium oxide.
The world currently has about 55—75 billion tons of bauxite reserves—enough to meet demand "well into the future" according to the US Geological Survey's Mineral Commodity Summaries, If you want to turn bauxite into aluminum to make useful things like cans, cooking foil, and space rockets , you've got to get rid of the impurities and the water and split the aluminum atoms from the oxygen atoms they're locked onto.
So making aluminum is actually a multi-stage process. First, you dig the bauxite from the ground, crush it up, dry it if it contains too much water , and purify it to leave just the aluminum oxide. Then you use an electrical technique called electrolysis to split this into aluminum and oxygen. Electrolysis is the opposite to what happens inside a battery. In a battery, you have two different metal connections inserted into a chemical compound and complete a circuit between them to generate electricity.
In electrolysis, you pass electricity, via two metal connections, into a chemical compound, which then gradually splits apart into its atoms. Once separated out, the pure aluminum is cast into blocks known as ingots, which can be worked or shaped or used as a raw material for making aluminum alloys.
Making usable, shiny aluminum from rocky lumps of bauxite that you've dug from the ground is a lengthy, dirty, incredibly energy-intensive process.
That's why the aluminum industry is so keen on recycling things like used drink cans. It's far quicker, cheaper, and easier to melt these down and reuse them than it is to process bauxite. It's also much better for the environment because it saves a huge amount of energy.
Chart: Why recycling aluminum makes sense. The amount of energy it takes to recycle metal for reuse orange bars is a fraction of what it takes to produce virgin metal in the first place blue bars , but the difference is much greater for aluminum center than for either steel left or copper right because it's so hard to extract and refine aluminum in the first place.
Data source: "Table 7. Photo: Building an aluminum boat. Chart: World aluminum production Although aluminum is produced in many countries, China now accounts for over half of world smelter production.
US production declined by almost half in , and fell by another 10 percent in to its lowest level since , before increasing again in Artwork: Aluminum is in group 13 III of the periodic table, which means it loses three electrons to form positive ions it has a valency of 3.
What's aluminum used for? How is aluminum made? A brief history of aluminum Fast facts: Aluminum Find out more. Fast facts: Aluminum Chart: World aluminum production Although aluminum is produced in many countries, China now accounts for over half of world smelter production.
A block of aluminum weighs one third as much as a block of steel the same size. Aluminum foil is typically less than 0. Pure aluminum reacts rapidly with air to form a rustproof protective layer of aluminum oxide. Many cooking pots, pans, and tools are made of aluminum. Packaging represents about a fifth of all the aluminum used in the United States. Commercial ingots of aluminum are huge and weigh around 16 tons. It takes over 20 times less energy to make pure aluminum from recycled cans than from bauxite.
That's dramatically down on the 1. Atomic number: 13 one aluminum atom contains 13 protons, 13 electrons, and 14 neutrons. Relative atomic mass: Sponsored links. Find out more On this site You might like these other articles on our site Copper Metals a simple introduction Titanium Other websites The Aluminum Association : Leading trade organization with lots of useful information about aluminum.
The International Aluminum Institute: Statistics : Useful worldwide production statistics, history, and publications. Alcoa : Website of a leading aluminum producer; includes quite a bit of background information about aluminum products, markets, and environmental impacts. American Society for Metals, A classic guide covering the physical nature of aluminum and its various applications.
Handbook of Aluminum Edited by George E. Totten and D. Scott MacKenzie. Dekker, Two volumes covering properties, metallurgy, alloy production, and manufacturing.
For younger readers Aluminum by Heather Hasan. Rosen,
Not a MyNAP member yet? Register for a free account to start saving and receiving special member only perks. Aircraft alloy materials and processing technology has been advancing steadily with each new aircraft model. Important alloys in commercial transport applications include high-performance aluminum alloys, high-strength steels, and titanium alloys. Significant progress is being made in developing alloys with improved strength, toughness, corrosion resistance, and producibility. Advances have been achieved primarily through incremental improvements to already-developed alloys.
Aluminum alloys for aerospace
DataPLUS, a new module providing data subsets covering joints information, lubricants and coolants, material dimensions, tribology, and coatings information helps drive even more accurate material selections! Click here to see more. Total Materia Tips and Tricks 14 th January Total Materia has allowed us to solve in a definite way all problems we had for the search of alternate materials in foreign countries. Thanks to Total Materia we have issued real "international" specs for purchase of steels in foreign countries.
The Evolution of Al-Li Base Products for Aerospace and Space Applications
Most Common Uses of Aluminum. No other metal can compare to Aluminum when it comes to its variety of uses. Some uses of aluminum may not be immediately obvious; for example, did you know aluminum is used in the manufacturing of glass? Aluminum is used in transportation because of its unbeatable strength to weight ratio. Its lighter weight means that less force is required to move the vehicle, leading to greater fuel efficiency. Although aluminum is not the strongest metal, alloying it with other metals helps to increase its strength. Its corrosion resistance is an added bonus, eliminating the need for heavy and expensive anti-corrosion coatings.
Most Common Uses of Aluminum
Metal Extrusion. Indirect extrusion, on the other hand, holds the die in position as the hollow ram moves into the stationary billet from one end, forcing the metal to flow through the die. Thank you for visiting our web site. Order your next aluminum frame complete with plates and panels fully assembled and all from one source.
Aluminum for industrial use having a purity of Here we present the special characteristics and applications of the rolled metal-use alloys used in products such as sheet, rod, and forged products. Markings in the series indicate pure aluminum for industrial use. For instance, shows that the purity is Trace amounts of Fe and Si are added to this aluminum depending upon their desired characteristics. Aluminum in the series offers excellent processability, corrosion resistance, weldability, electric conductivity and thermal conductivity. It is therefore used for containers, radiation materials and other products. Al-Cu alloys are represented by and , which are also known as duralumin and super duralumin. These Al-Cu alloys feature excellent strength and cutting properties. Since they contain a large amount of Cu, these alloys have lower corrosion resistance than pure aluminum, so treatment is used in corrosive environments. These alloys are used for aircraft materials, machine parts, and structural materials.
Nonferrous Aircraft Metals – Aluminum and Aluminum Alloys
Uses Of Aluminium In Construction. Specialised Aluminium Products. There are many different types of metal used in the construction industry. The tower structure and spire are built in part from aluminum, as well as components such as the entrances, elevator doors, ornamental trim and more than 6, window spandrels. Mercury is used in thermometers.
Last updated: April 16, S uppose you had to design the perfect material—what would it be like? You'd probably want it to be plentiful and relatively inexpensive, strong and lightweight, easy to combine with other materials, resistant to heat and corrosion, and a good conductor of electricity. In short, you'd probably come up with a material like aluminum spelled aluminium in some countries—and that's also the official IUPAC spelling. We all see and use aluminum every day without even thinking about it. Disposable drinks cans are made from it and so is cooking foil. You can find this ghostly gray-white metal in some pretty amazing places, from jet engines in airplanes to the hulls of hi-tech warships.
Most Common Uses of Aluminum
By Prof. Madhuri K. Rathi, Mr. Ajinkya K.
Advantages And Disadvantages Of Aluminium As A Building Material
Aluminum has a long and successful history in aerospace. More than a century later, it is the most-used metal in the air. Marta Danylenko, marketing manager at online materials database Matmatch, explains common aluminum alloys used in aerospace engineering and their applications, as well as some less well-known ones, and what the future holds for aerospace materials.
Aluminium alloys or aluminum alloys ; see spelling differences are alloys in which aluminium Al is the predominant metal. The typical alloying elements are copper , magnesium , manganese , silicon , tin and zinc. There are two principal classifications, namely casting alloys and wrought alloys, both of which are further subdivided into the categories heat-treatable and non-heat-treatable.
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Aluminum was first used in quantity for building and construction in the s. The applications were primarily oriented toward decorative detailing and art deco structures.