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Eating Coffee Candy. Solubility B. Water Activity C. Diffusion D. Viscosity E. Sweetness F. Crystal Size B. Bulk Viscosity C. Coatings D. Browning Changes during Storage A. Water Transfer B. Fermentation C. Sucrose Hydrolysis D. Temperature Effects E. Recrystallization F.
Foam Collapse G. Flavor Changes H. Energy and Calories B. All rights of reproduction in any form reserved. Hansen C. Dental Caries D. Metabolic Effects E. Intestinal Absorption F.
Occasionally, confection is used to denote an especially fancy or expensive piece of candy. However, these definitions are not universally accepted. Strictly defined, the word candy refers to products containing sugar as the dominant component, and does not include chocolate products. Confection is a more general term referring to any sweet product manufactured from sugar and other ingredients.
In this sense, confectionery includes chocolate-based products and additionally flour-based products such as cakes, cookies, and pastries. Sugar is a common ingredient in all these products, and any discussion of candy and confections must of necessity include the role of sugar.
This chapter deals with candy and other sugar confectionery, with sugar playing its usual dominant role in the discussion, as it does in production, quality, and stability of these products. The main sugar used in confectionery, including chocolate and flour confectionery, is sucrose. This is the common cane or beet sugar, and the term sugar usually means sucrose, both in the home and in manufacturing. However, many other ingredients of confections are or contain chemical components classified as sugars.
Principal among these sugars are glucose, fructose, lactose, and maltose. Candy and Sugar Confectionery syrup which contain maltose and polymers of glucose. Sucrose is a disaccharide composed of a glucose unit and a fructose unit linked together. Sucrose can be hydrolyzed to a mixture of the two monosaccharides, and this mixture is invert sugar.
In this chapter, the individual chemical components will be called sucrose, glucose, fructose and so on. The term sugar will refer to all of them collectively, although often sucrose will be the major sugar involved.
The term sweetener includes not only the sugars and their commercial sources, but also sugar alcohols such as sorbitol, mannitol, and xylitol, and the artificial sweeteners. Except where noted, metric units of measurement are used. Particularly note that temperatures are given in degrees Celcius. Much of the information presented here was originally obtained using American units, and later converted to metric in the references or for this chapter.
When concentrations are expressed as percentages, these are percentages by weight. I wish to point out two items that are not discussed herein, so that readers do not think they have been overlooked. The second item is refractometry, which is widely used in the sugar refining and confectionery industries to determine dissolved solids content.
During production, refractometry is a simple and useful method. In this regard, measurement of water activity is both more accurate and easier than measurement of refractive index. The general composition of various confectionery product types is given in Table I Martin, In addition to differences in composition, the Thomson J.
Hansen physical nature of the sucrose defines two broad and somewhat overlapping groups. In one group, sucrose is present in crystalline form, usually as microscopic crystals dispersed in syrup.
This group includes fondant cremes and other crystallized, or grained, products. Many of the examples in this chapter will refer to fondant. The other group contains uncrystallized sugars in a very viscous solution, which is handled like a solid at room temperature.
This group includes the hard candies, which are extremely viscous owing to their very high sugar content, and soft, chewy products in which fat, protein, or gelling agents provide high viscosity. The differences in ingredients and crystallization necessitate different storage conditions for the various products.
An additional storage concern is that confectionery products are largely seasonal. The types of products in demand are different for the different holidays with, for example, egg-shaped cremes at Easter and hard candies at Christmas.
In order to spread out production, a manufacturer must have the capability to store products for several months without loss of quality. During this storage period, some control over temperature and humidity can be achieved. Fortunately, the amount of time during which the product is exposed to uncontrolled conditions is short, as the time between distribution and consumption is usually no more than a few weeks. Interested readers should refer to some of the many books on this subject.
Among the best of these are those by Lees and Jackson , Minifie , and Pratt et al. While there is still a great deal of art in candy making, confectionery manufacture, like all food production, is much more of a science now than it was a few decades ago. A great deal of information on the fundamental scientific properties of sucrose was developed by and for the sugar refining industry, and can be used by the confectionery industry.
Basic data on sucrose and other sugars can be found in publications from the U. National Bureau of 7. Many more data are needed on the properties of other confectionery ingredients, in order to allow manufacturers to provide more and better products to meet consumer demands. The values in Table II are calculated from Eq. This is the common unit for expression of sugar concentrations, both in the confectionery and sugar refining industries.
Also in Table II are solubility values expressed in grams1sucrose per g water. These two quantities are related by the Thomsen J. Hansen following equation.
Density varies with both concentrations and temperature, and several compilations of sucrose solution densities are available, most based on extensive studies by the U.
National Bureau of Standards Bates, For conversion to molar concentration moles per liter , it is also necessary to know the molecular weight of sucrose, which is Again, since these percentages are dimensionless, weight units other than grams can be used.
The syrup consists of the remaining Crystallization is also accompanied by a volume change. The density of pure crystalline sucrose is 1. The total volume of the crystals and syrup in this example is Using similar calculations, the change in crystal content and volume with change in 7. Candy and Sugar Confectionery temperature or water content can be determined.
This is an important factor in storage of confectionery. The addition of other ingredients changes the solubility of sucrose, though not in an obvious manner. Fructose and glucose, for example, compete with sucrose for solvent water but also interact directly with sucrose. The compositions of sucrose-invert sugar-water mixtures saturated with sucrose have been studied at various temperatures and invert sugar contents Bates, Values are given in Table III.
Solubility in this case is expressed as grams sucrose per g water 5' at various levels of invert sugar, also given as grams per g water. The total dissolved solids per g water is obtained by adding the respective values for sucrose and invert sugar.
Sugar Confectionery - Sugars
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CANDY AND SUGAR CONFECTIONERY
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Americans—and just about everyone else—love candy. In , candy and gum ranked third among the top ten food categories and first among all snack categories in terms of total dollar sales. New products are always appearing on the market, but is there anything new in the technology of candy processing? I posed that question to a number of experts in confectionery processing. Here are their responses. One of the latest developments in the industry, he said, is proliferation of hard candy produced by the depositing process rather than the traditional die-forming process. This has enabled the production of products containing higher levels of dairy products than ever before, at least in the United States. One of the reasons is that the dairy fats are not expressed from the cooked product in the depositing process, whereas they tend to be in die forming. Depositing is not really a new process, he said, having been used in Europe for many years, but it is relatively new in the U.
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Sorbitol, a polyol sugar alcohol , is a bulk sweetener found in numerous food products. In addition to providing sweetness, it is an excellent humectant and texturizing agent. It has a smooth mouthfeel with a sweet, cool and pleasant taste. It is non-cariogenic and may be useful to people with diabetes.
Confectionery is the art of making confections , which are food items that are rich in sugar and carbohydrates. Exact definitions are difficult. Bakers' confectionery, also called flour confections , includes principally sweet pastries, cakes, and similar baked goods. Sugar confectionery includes candies usually called sweets in British English , candied nuts, chocolates, chewing gum, bubble gum, pastillage , and other confections that are made primarily of sugar. In some cases, chocolate confections confections made of chocolate are treated as a separate category, as are sugar-free versions of sugar confections. The confectionery industry also includes specialized training schools and extensive historical records. Before sugar was readily available in the ancient western world, confectionery was based on honey. They adopted and then spread sugar and sugarcane agriculture. In the early history of sugar usage in Europe, it was initially the apothecary who had the most important role in the production of sugar-based preparations. Medieval European physicians learned the medicinal uses of the material from the Arabs and Byzantine Greeks.
Invalid Email. Invalid contact no. Special Symbols Not Allowed. Invalid Security Code. Sugar confectioneries are referred to as sweets and are consumed by almost all income groups. These products offer a wide range of variety, ranging from individually wrapped sweets and sophisticated packaging for cheap products. Get more information on this report : Request Sample Pages.
Emulsifiers in Confectionery
Confectionery manufacture has been dominated by large-scale industrial processing for several decades. Confectionery implies the food items that are rich in sugar and often referred to as a confection and refers to the art of creating sugar based dessert forms, or subtleties subtlety or sotelty , often with pastillage. The simplest and earliest confection used by man was honey, dating back over years ago. Traditional confectionery goes back to ancient times, and continued to be eaten through the Middle Ages into the modern era. Sugar confectionery has developed around the properties of one ingredient — Sucrose. It is a non- reducing disaccharide. The principal ingredient in all confectionery is sucrose, which in its refined form has little flavour apart from its inherent sweetness. This handbook contains Packaging in the confectionery industry, Structure of sugar confectionery, Flavouring of confectionery, Confectionery plant, Ingredients, Quality control and chemical analysis, Medicated confectionery and chewing Gum, Chocolate flow properties, General technical aspects of industrial sugar confectionery manufacture, Manufacture of liquorice paste, Extrusion cooking technology, Manufacture of invert sugar, Marzipan and crystallized confectionery. The manufacture of confectionery is not a science based industry, as these products have traditionally been created by skilled confectioners working empirically. The aim of this handbook is to give the reader a perspective on several processes and techniques which are generally followed in the confectionery industry.
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Chocolate mousse is an iconic French dessert. When mousse is manufactured for large-scale commercialisation, shelf stability is generally obtained by emulsifying and aerating a mixture of ingredients, including protein, fat, sugars, and water.