This article provides a general overview of statistics on pig farming in the European Union EU. Pigmeat is produced throughout the EU on several types of farms with considerable variations from one Member State to another. Three quarters of pigs are reared by just 1. Small pig producers are mostly found in the 13 Member States that joined the EU since , which creates a decreasing size of the herd. The tasks of pig rearing are distributed across farms in the main production basins and even across regions.
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Lighting for Pig UnitsVIDEO ON THE TOPIC: Sows in the Pig Meat Industry Life as a Production Unit
Pigs and their farm role changed dramatically during the past fifty years. During the first half of the 20 th century, the pigs found on most farms were primarily a waste disposal system that contributed the occasional meal and even less freq uent revenue. Scavenger pigs still abound as part of a mixed, subsistence farming system in almost all of the less developed countries.
Now, however, these often exist in close association with large, specialized units producing for both local and export markets. As indicated in the following chart, pork production currently leads all other meat outputs by a considerable margin. Based on the volume of product marketed, pigs, either as part of mixed farming operations or in specialized units, comprise the major livestock enterprise throughout the world.
All of our domesticated pigs probably descended from the Eurasian wild boar with major sites of development in both the middle east and in China. Many generations of selective breeding produced the conformation found in our modern breeds. Some of the m ore common breeds in Canada and throughout the rest of the world today are the Yorkshire or Large White, Landrace.
Duroc and Hampshire. Check the Oklahoma State agricultural library for inform ation on specific breeds of pigs. Pigs breed at all times of the year so pork production is a continuous cycle. Traditionally, sows farrowed periodically, piglets were retained after weaning around eight weeks of age, grew slowly, and were consumed eventually or sold by their original owners. Now pigs may constitute the only type of livestock present on a farm with the system often further specialized by operators concentrating on specific stages of the production sequence.
Some farms still keep and mate sows, farrow the liters and raise piglets to market weight. These are called farrow to finish operations. Other farmers engage in weaner production , maintaining breeding herds but selling all their piglets at around ten weeks of age to some other farmer.
Those who keep no breeding animals but purchase all of their pigs from weaner producers are called finishing or feeder operators. The pig finishers or fe eders then takes care of these purchased animals until they reach market weight. Regardless of the type of operation, all hog farmers must arrange for appropriate facilities and care to look after their stock.
In addition to the moral obligation to provid e humane care, producers recognize that their livelihoods depends on creating an environment that keeps animals healthy and comfortable so they can express their full genetic potential. Careful and conscientious management is essential for ecologically fr iendly and profitable production so it benefits the pigs, the producers and all of society. Heritability is the expected response of a trait or characteristic based on the parents' genetic merit ie.
Heritability is most of ten expressed as a decimal or percentage. For example, the heritability of backfat thickness is about 0. Similar quantitative traits like milk production, growth rate, feed efficiency and other aspects of carcass quality also have reasonably high heritability so respond quickly to genetic selection. In contrast, the environment al factors are considerably more important in traits like fertility or litter size so, in addition to genetic selection, other methods are necessary to improve these characteristics.
The goal of any genetic improvement program is to increase the economic value of the progeny. Requirements for a successful outcome are:. Superior performance resulting from good management does not automatically repeat in the next generation whereas that obtained from genetic superiority will be transmitted to progeny.
The key to obtaining genetic improvement is distinguishing between t he genetic and environmental factors influencing performance and selecting only those animals that are genetically superior as parents of the next generation. An EBV is the estimated genetic worth of a particular animal for a specific trait. Selection Index. Once selection priorities are decided, it is useful if the EBV information for the various factors can be combined into a single index based on the relative economic values, heitabilities and any correlations between them.
For maximum usefulness, any selection index should be updated regularly with new information and adjusted for any changes in economic importance of particular traits. Animals of known ancestry pedigreed always used in all parts of the breeding program from which any replacements would be kept. This involves mating animals of different recognized breeds or strains? Crossbreeding also exploits the phenomenon of heterosis, an increase in productivity of the crossbred over and above the avera ge of breeds or lines that are crossed.
Within line selection to improve specific traits. Any attempts to influence genotype, particularly for poly-genic traits, is difficult, time consuming and expensive. This is an obvious method for use within purebred herds since they must demonstrate im provement to remain competitive.
If herds are not selling breeding stock, they may still retain pure lines but the expense of purebred registration is not likely to be justified. Because of the costs involved, this approach is becoming more and more conce ntrated within large and often multinational breeding companies.
Producers should always be aware of what is happening elsewhere. This allows rapid introduction of new lines already improved in other locations. Successful production requires animals with good genotype for traits of economic importance plus the ability to withstand reasonable degrees of stress while maintaining high voluntary feed intake and feed conversion efficiency. Pig farmers may obtain s uch animals from within their own herd or purchase them from other suppliers.
The optimum genotype varies with market demand. Asians and Italians still prefer some fat on their pork but Germans and French want none. Canadians and Americans are somewhere i n between these extremes. Healthy pigs without the proper genotype may not always be profitable pigs but unhealthy pigs cannot be profitable regardless of genotype. Hybrid vigor and vaccinations aid in maintaining good health but provision of a satisfactory environment is even more important.
This is particularly true in the nursery area since recently weaned piglets are the most susceptible to disease. People operating growing-finishing units should be very careful where they obtain their stock since it is much easier to keep disease out than it is to eliminate it once an infection gets started. An all-in all-out system is best.
Farmers forced into continuous production should isolate all new additions for a period before entrance to the main herd. Pig husbandry follows several patterns. Throughout those regions of the world where subsistence farming predominates, pigs usually roam freely, rooting or scavenging for whatever feed they can find for themselves.
Such scavenger pigs must be prevented from foraging in gardens or grain plots during the active growing seasons. Also, some form of constraint is necessary at night if attack by predators or theft might occur. Pigs in the industrialized countries are usually confined throughout most or all of the production cycle. Some form of pasture feeding, often combined with open-fronted shed housing, may be incorporated into the confinement systems whenever climate and land availability allow.
The pork production sequence can be divided into five phases; mating, gestating, farrowing, nursery and growing-finishing. Animals have specific needs at each of these stages, requiring appropriate husbandry and facilities to insure that they receive p roper attention and care. Although specific housing varies considerably between regions and even between farms within regions, all animal housing should be constructed to look after the well being of the pigs and their attendants.
The comfort zones and management requirements change substantially throughout a pig's life. Modern units are designed to allow convenient movement of animals to appropriate quarters as their needs change during the production sequence from birth to market or during the reproductive cycle. The design goal is to provide the best possible environment for both pigs and people. Obviously, this must be done within some economic constraints. Extensive or systems with animals running outside whenever possible requires less capital and perhaps management expertise but they are labor intensive whenever animals must be moved or handled in any way.
Confinement housing is capital intensive for both buildings and equipment but provides opportunity for automation and labor reduction. Proper operation of these systems demand considerable management expertise.
Our pig buildings fall into two main clas ses:. In conjunction with any housing areas, pig units require facilities for moving, handling and restraining pig s of various sizes.
Conception - birth Thus, producers with large herds usually try to wean on Thursday so that many sows show estrus and require mating on the following Monday to Thursday. This reduces, but does not eliminate, the need for weekend mating chores. Additional information is available on mating management and farrowing. Newborn piglets have very limited ability to digest feed. The sow compensates for this by producing milk, a readily digested diet supplying almost all the nutritional requirements of her offspring, and offering this frequently.
Also, the immune system is immature at birth so piglets have no inherent resistance to disease and cannot generate any real protection for five or six weeks. Antibodies concentrated in sow colostrum compensate for this initial deficiency but protection is short and usually has d isappeared by weaning time ie.
Weaning, particularly at younger ages, involves a sudden change of diet and environment, so is certainly one of the most potentially distressing stages in a piglets life. Growth is an anabolic process resulting in an increase in body mass over a period of time.
The enlargement in body size of domesticated animals, taking place throughout the period from conception to maturity, is the basis of meat production. Growth occ urs in two ways, through an increase in cell numbers hyperplasia or an increase in cell size hypertrophy. Neither the whole body mass nor its individual tissues an organs grow at exactly the same rate so growth is asynchronous.
One of the major challe nges in livestock production is deciding when is the optimum time to market animals. Since feed efficiency declines as the growth rate slows, making the correct decision on when to market is often the difference between profit and loss.
The progressive changes in body shape, size and chemical composition occurring between conception and full maturity result in both structural and functional changes in the constituent parts. These pertain to the stage of physiological maturity and rela te to product quality.
The natural growth process favors development of muscle tissue throughout much of the growing-finishing period. As animals near their fully mature body size, however, the natural tendency is to reduce muscle and increase fat deposit ion. Producers generally try to market them just before or very shortly after this transition. Growth can be manipulated by injection of recombinant porcine somatotrophin. There is considerable disparity in recommendations on space requirement for growing and finishing pigs.
Up to a point, the more space - the better the performance. All housing is a compromise between maximizing performance of each pig in a pen and opti mizing the financial return from investment.
Whenever housing costs are low and feed is expensive, operators can be more liberal with space allowed per pig.
Commercial pig raising is a capital- and labour-intensive business. Success requires a sound combination of business management, and pig husbandry knowledge and skills. Even keeping just a few pigs still requires husbandry skills and attention to legal requirements. Before establishing a piggery, there are several important elements to consider. Pig raising is increasingly concentrated on fewer farms than in the past.
Intensive pig farming
In the USA and Europe this method of rearing pigs has prevailed for decades. But recently pig farming has also grown significantly in China, where it is estimated that approximately half of the pigs that are killed in the world are slaughtered. To produce the quantities of pig meat needed to meet customer demand, contemporary farming focuses on raising pigs as quickly as possible while occupying the least possible space. We will now look at why. There are several different facilities for the different stages in pig breeding, which are described below. Female pigs used for reproduction are kept locked in crates during gestation, which lasts about days around 16 weeks.
Archive:Pig farming sector - statistical portrait 2014
Wageningen Academic Pub Bolero Ozon. Animal Production and Animal Science Worldwide. Rosati , A. Tewolde , C. Development of production systems in Europe.SEE VIDEO BY TOPIC: U.S. Pork - Sustainable Pork Production
Citation of this paper. A survey was carried out to understand the social, technological and economic aspects of backyard pig production in the region of Xochimilco, Mexico. The results showed an average number of 8 animals per producer for either breeding or fattening with Yorkshire and Landrace the main breeds used. The feeding system in the region incorporated a significative proportion of non-conventional foods such as tortilla and house garbage combined with commercial concentrates and fresh lucerne. Criteria to select animals for breeding were based on body conformation and number of teats whereas age, economic urgency and low production were utilized for the rejection. Common diseases were cholera, erysipela and pneumonia. The backyard pig production in the region has been adapted to some of the technological ways of modern pig production whilst maintaining its traditional base. The existence of this system demostrates that it is sustainable and in contrast with official plans for technification of pig development in the zone. The backyard pig production system has the characteristics of a sub-urban model with a high potential to be sustainable and presenting a realistic alternative for agricultural activities in the zone within the highly polluted city of Mexico. Pig production in Mexico constitutes an activity of great importance as it produces meat and by-products such as fat for frying, both of which are in high demand Chapela
Pig production in Russia
Pigs have been central to Chinese farming and culture for millennia. Until quite recently, people lived in close proximity to them, with most families raising a few in or near their homes. While pigs were ubiquitous in the ancient and modern Chinese countryside, for most people pork was a rare treat.
Pig farming is the raising and breeding of domestic pigs as livestock , and is a branch of animal husbandry. Pigs are farmed principally for food e. Pigs are amenable to many different styles of farming: intensive commercial units , commercial free range enterprises, or extensive farming being allowed to wander around a village, town or city, or tethered in a simple shelter or kept in a pen outside the owner's house. Historically, farm pigs were kept in small numbers and were closely associated with the residence of the owner, or in the same village or town. Pigs have been farmed to dispose of municipal garbage on a large scale. All these forms of pig farm are in use today, though intensive farms are by far the most popular, due to their potential to raise a large amount of pigs in a very cost-efficient manner. The majority of pigs are used for human food but also supply skin, fat and other materials for use as clothing, ingredients for processed foods,  cosmetics,  and medical use. The activities on a pig farm depend on the husbandry style of the farmer, and range from very little intervention as when pigs are allowed to roam villages or towns and dispose of garbage to intensive systems where the pigs are contained in a building for the majority of their lives. Each pig farm will tend to adapt to the local conditions and food supplies and fit their practices to their specific situation. Almost all of the pig can be used as food. Preparations of pig parts into specialties include: sausage and casings made from the intestines , bacon , gammon, ham , skin into pork scratchings , feet into trotters , head into a meat jelly called head cheese brawn , and consumption of the liver , chitterlings , and blood blood pudding or black pudding.
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News Dec 31, Multiplying offers a means of insulating a herd from the fluctuations of the market by adding substantial value to stock produced, points out ACMC's James Hall. The layout of the unit must allow good bio-security as part of the overall layout to maintain health status. Normal sale weight of gilts is 95 kg, which allows the farmer to market any non-selected gilts on a normal finished-pig contract. The use of grandparent stock to produce the gilts also gives a commercial bonus. Unlike some grandparents, the Meidam is highly productive — due to the inclusion of prolific Chinese genes — and is able to withstand robust production systems. As productive as the AC1 parent gilt, it will easily wean over 11 pigs per litter, allowing production parity with commercial units, points out James. ACMC offers a comprehensive package of help and advice during both the setting-up and production phases.
Since the first edition was compiled by Primrose McConnell in , The Agricultural Notebook has become established as the standard work of reference for all those in the farming industry. With each edition it has evolved and changed in such a way as to provide agricultural scientists, students of agriculture and related subjects, farmers, farm managers and land agents with an abundance of current information on all aspects of the business of farming. Many comments received from lecturers and students who have used previous editions of the book have been taken into account in producing the twentieth edition. The thirty contributing authors have fully updated chapters, a new clearer layout has been adopted and much new information is included in easy-to-use tables and figures. The Agricultural Notebook is an essential purchase for all students of agriculture, countryside, and rural studies. All libraries within universities, colleges and research establishments where agricultural and rural sciences are studied and taught should have multiple copies of this important new edition on their shelves. The Agricultural Notebook. The Twentieth Edition takes The Agricultural Notebook into its third century; it has been thoroughly revised and updated to reflect the considerable changes in agricultural and rural practices and policies which have taken place since publication of the previous edition.
As always, our consumers are the main focus of what we do. We carefully monitor changes in consumer preferences, so we are able to meet, and even exceed, their expectations. Our products are popular throughout Russia. Over the years, Cherkizovo Group has evolved alongside its consumers to respond to new values and trends.
Pigs need the right light levels so that they can identify each other, communicate and see pen features such as feeders. There is good evidence that pigs' eyes are not adapted for extremely bright light and that they may be better suited to dim levels of natural light. This knowledge is vital when deciding how to light your indoor or outdoor pig units. While pigs need natural light to produce vitamin D3, a deficiency of vitamin D is not considered a problem in pig production, as vitamin D2 is provided in balanced pig diets.
Intensive pig farming , also known as pig factory farming is a subset of pig farming and of Industrial animal agriculture , all of which are types of animal husbandry , in which livestock domestic pigs are raised up to slaughter weight. In this system of pig production, grower pigs are housed indoors in group-housing or straw-lined sheds, whilst pregnant sows are housed in gestation crates or pens and give birth in farrowing crates. The use of gestation crates for pregnant sows has resulted in lower birth production costs; however, this practice has led to more significant animal cruelty.
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