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The subject deserves a book - such is its complexity - but I can only scratch at the surface in this short page, which I hope gives an over-view of the oil seed-crushing industry in Hull.
Today it is an industry of world wide importance and one which is vital to the community, for dependent upon it are not only the supply of vegetable oils for margarine and cooking fats, for soaps, for paints, for linoleum manufacture and many other important uses, but also proteins and other ingredients needed to ensure the supply It is estimated that some forty million tons of oilseeds are crushed in various parts of the world each year.
Few studies have been made that enforce the importance of seed crushing to Hull, as little or no detailed records have survived from the companies involved. What follows is a summary, compiled mostly from secondary sources, of the massive influence this trade has had on the city and port of Kingston upon Hull. Oil has always featured highly in the commercial history of the city; rape and other seeds were imported into Hull in the Middle Ages, and the only purpose for this was to extract the useful oil by crushing.
In , the compilers of the Victoria County History for Hull noted:. The oldest of these was the oil-seed extracting industry. There are references to the milling of rape-seed in Hull from the early 16th century and by the middle of the 18th century the industry was well established. As early as Joseph Pease, later head of the banking firm, had built an oil-mill at the corner of Lowgate and Salthouse Lane, and by the end of the century, when there a growing demand for linseed oil for cloth-making processes, for paint, and for soap, there were numerous such mills.
In in one street alone, Wincolmlee, there were 'three wind oil-mills, one belonging to Messrs. The growth of the extracting industry is reflected in the quantity of cattle cakes exported; this rose from about , in to over , in Thereafter exports were recorded in tons, 52 tons being exported in Similarly, the quantity of linseed brought to Hull rose from 1, bushels in to 18, in and over 66, in English oil-seed was also being brought from East Anglia and from those parts of Yorkshire where flax-growing was developing.
Two industries which arose in connexion with the oil extracting industry were the manufacture of paint and the production of machinery for the extraction process. The main development of the industry however came in the early 19th century; in Sissons Bros. The hydraulic press, invented by Joseph Bramah in , was taken up by the Old Foundry, which was later to become Rose, Downs, and Thompson, specializing in the manufacture of oil-milling machinery.
For those of you who dislike the new generation of wind turbines appearing on the horizon [I quite like them myself] it may surprise you to know that Hull was once dotted with large brick-built windmills — many later converted to steam and other power.
Several of these were located near to the city centre, and often within areas of dense housing, often belching out smoke around the clock, as well as deafening those closest with the thump and grind of the machinery. Such industries also caused other nuisances, and in the 17th Century the Corporation forbid the burning of rape-cakes owing to their 'filthy smell'. The oil seed crushing Industry depended upon the importation of oil-bearing seeds, from home and abroad, and historically in Hull this has included:.
Rape — imported from the s, mostly from Germany and the low-countries Belgium, Netherlands etc , and now a major local crop, as can be seen from the many yellow fields around East Yorkshire in particular. Flax — the variety of Flax commonly grown in England, is used to produce linseed oil for the manufacture of linoleum and some cattle foods, and is actually part of the cabbage family.
The growth of the seed-crushing industry itself, also increased demand for imports. They are however, by no means insignificant. Among the principal of them is the expressing and refining of oil, from line, rape, and other seeds, and preparing the residue for the feeding of cattle.
The process is chiefly effected by mills worked by the wind and occasionally by the aid of steam. The mode of refining rape oil was brought to perfection by Dr Daniel Bridges of Hull, who also invented the improved system of purifying spermaceti oil, now practiced here with great success.
The same directory listed four seed crushing companies in Hull. By there were 13, 19 by , and in there were In there were 24, 36 in , 32 in , 35 in , 24 in , and thereafter a steady decrease in numbers. In there were 14, in just 10, and in only six. Following the Second World War the numbers were even lower, with just four seed-crushing companies listed in This does not indicate a reduction in the trade itself, but that a number of much larger mills had replaced many smaller ones.
In by W. The seed crushing industry was located mainly in mills along the banks of the river Hull — in Wincolmlee, Church Street and Bankside to the west of the river — and Dansom Lane, Lime Street, the Groves, Wilmington, Stoneferry and Holderness Road in the east. The river Hull was a well-established means of transport for the importation of raw materials by ship, as well as the export of any finished products.
The earliest oil mill in Hull of which we have any definite evidence however, was built near the corner of Lowgate. Other seed-crushing mills existed even earlier, including a 17th Century sugar mill at Trippett, which converted to rape-seed in The construction of more and more seed crushing mills along the banks of the River Hull, where they could take their raw material from barges, had begun with a single horse powered mill, but by there were ten wind-powered mills, and by that figure had increased to The process employed various methods of crushing and pressing, to extract the vegetable oil for use in a long list of products.
This in turn gave rise to subsidiary industries all around Hull, such as the manufacture of paint, soap, linoleum, margarine and edible fats — e. The industry reached its peak in the late 19th Century, and it was during that period that many of the large oil mills were constructed — many of which survived until very recently. As such, the seed crushing industry was a huge employer, and literally thousands of locals made their living in the mills or the many associated industries.
The workers even had a pub named after them - the Seedcrushers Arms in Francis Street - which is shown and discussed in the Lost Pubs of Hull pages on this site. Hence the trade has seen very great expansions; it now includes the production of castor oil and soft soaps; and, altogether, utilizes a very large capital and gives great employment. Of this industry, Hull is the unrivalled centre, the port having been long and generally recognized as specially adapted to the importation and manufacture into cakes and oil of linseed, formerly brought chiefly from Russia, but now mostly from the Argentine, and from our Colonies and Dependencies; of cotton seed largely from India and Egypt ; and rape seed; also of carobs, etc.
The seed-crushing trade is largely the subject of an Association or Combine, which includes Hull and other places. The export of Linseed Oil from Hull in was 3, tons including 1, tons to Australia , and of Cotton Oil 11, tons. By the s Hull had become the largest seed crushing and oil extracting centre in the world. In alone almost , tons of oil seeds were imported into Hull consisting of Linseed , tons, Soya Beans 74,, Egyptian cottonseed ,, other kinds of cottonseed 62,, Rape seed 41,, Castor seed 14,, Palm Kernels 87,, Ground nuts 9,, Sunflower seed 5, Ltd, Bankside.
Ltd, Hedon Road; and John L. Although the many old-established High Street offices of the oil merchants and brokers have gone in there were at least 53 firms involved in the oil seed crushing industry occupying properties in High Street alone , a very small number of buildings related to the oil seed crushing industry remain.
It seems very likely that before too long the origins of this most important of industries will have been completely wiped out.
I am grateful to David Jessop for several of the photographs of former oil mills shown here, which include: -. Other buildings around the city, which also have a direct link to the seed crushing industry, are: -. The Windmill public house, now at the corner of Witham and Clarence Street, which originally took its name from the Block House Oil Mill that sat almost alongside it in Holderness Road before the pub was rebuilt.
This was a four-sailed windmill that was converted to a stamper press mill in Joseph Pease had by then already invested heavily in the oil seed crushing industry.
The former 'Mutiny on The Bounty' pub in Dock Office Row, when known as Oriental Buildings in , was occupied as offices by two seed crushing firms and one seed merchant. The Pacific Club, in High Street, now part of the 'Pacific Court' student flats complex was the merchants exchange where the business of trading in oil seed and corn was carried out.
The banknotes issued by that bank had an engraving of Pease's oil mill on them for many years. Edited by K J Allison. Sir A. Rollit and others. Hull, Flora of the East Riding of Yorkshire. Eva Crackles ed. Oil Seed Crushing — What?
Website design by ianhalstead. Oil Seed Crushing. The oil seed crushing Industry depended upon the importation of oil-bearing seeds, from home and abroad, and historically in Hull this has included: Rape — imported from the s, mostly from Germany and the low-countries Belgium, Netherlands etc , and now a major local crop, as can be seen from the many yellow fields around East Yorkshire in particular.
Soya beans — part of the pea family. I am grateful to David Jessop for several of the photographs of former oil mills shown here, which include: - A typical 19 th Century oil mill site, which is thought to be Hull P Gibson collection. A 19 th Century engraving of the Vulcan Oil Mill in Hull, where many mill components were fabricated. The Vulcan Oil Mill as it was in the late s. Section plan of a typical oil mill c.
A close-up of the Anglo American Oil Mill tower. The main range of buildings in the Lion Oil Mill, Wincolmlee, in the s. This is one of the very few remaining oil mill buildings left in Hull.
A section of the Stoneferry Oil Mills in the s. A wider view of the Stoneferry Oil Mills. The Premier Oil Mills at Stoneferry c. Other buildings around the city, which also have a direct link to the seed crushing industry, are: - The Windmill public house, now at the corner of Witham and Clarence Street, which originally took its name from the Block House Oil Mill that sat almost alongside it in Holderness Road before the pub was rebuilt.
History of Seed Crushing in Great Britain. Harold W Brace, Land Books. East Yorkshire Windmills. Roy Gregory, Charles Skilton. Cheddar, Oil Seed Crushing — What? Trade directories — various. Archived by the British Library.
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These declines were moderated by increases in other engineering construction such as work on a new iron ore mine in Labrador. There were also notable increases in paper, pharmaceuticals and medicines, and machinery manufacturing. Seafood product preparation and packaging, as well as wood product manufacturing, declined.
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