Hellerstein, Joel Bender, John G. Hadley and Charles M. Typical body constituents 2. Manufacturing processes 3. Selected chemical additives 4.
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This invention relates to methods of applying inorganic based luster pigments to a surface. More particularly, the invention relates to a method of applying the luster pigments to a vitreous surface in a manner wherein the luster pigment is fixed thereto without causing an adverse appearance effect.
Background Art Luster pigments have a unique appearance. They have a pearlescent appearance which is pleasing to the eye. They are described in U. Patent Nos.
The pigments are recommended for use in many formulations and have found wide acceptance in automotive paints, printing inks, plastic bottles, cosmetics and simulated pearls. Other luster pigments which are commercially available, though have not been as widely used, have an inorganic platelet-like particle such as glass with the metal oxide coating. Patent No. Organic luster pigments, as described in U.
Use of the luster pigments in vitreous compositions, however, has been limited. Vitreous compositions, per se, are well known. They are based on ground glass, glass forming materials or a mixture of both. Such compositions can be coatings which are applied to a substrate and then heated or fired to a temperature sufficient to cause the coating components to melt.
When cooled, a thin coating of glass is formed on the substrate. The coatings are commonly referred to as vitreous enamels when the substrate is a metal and vitreous glazes when the substrate is a ceramic. The coatings are used to decorate the substrate with color or artistic renditions as well as add to the substrate's durability in terms of scratch and mar resistance, moisture barrier, etc.
The customary and normal procedure for incorporating pigments in vitreous compositions is to include them in the body of the composition's glass component. Alternatively, the pigments are incorporated in a vitreous flux which is applied to a vitreous substrate.
In either case, the vitreous composition must be heated to a high temperature to fuse the glass components. It follows that any pigment included in the formulation must be able to withstand the high temperatures. This has not been a problem with many of the pigments which are available. Data sheets provided by the pigment suppliers as well as acquired knowledge of the artisan or manufacturer are sufficient. However, understandably there are certain pigments either because of their color or other visual effect which cannot be used in certain vitreous compositions.
It has been found that the luster pigments are not stable at the elevated temperatures experienced. It appears that the glass components attack the pigments at the elevated temperatures. The formed surfaces simply do not have the desired appearance. The instability problem of luster pigments in vitreous compositions, including coatings and substrate bodies is recognized.
Necessarily, the specially treated luster pigments are more expensive. Additionally, while more stable, their stability is less than ideal. Certain applications of the disclosed luster pigments still do not result in the desired appearance. Furthermore, when the luster pigments are incorporated in a vitreous flux, an inordinate amount of luster pigment is required to obtain proper color intensity. Another drawback is the fact that transparent fluxes must be used for the desired color effects.
In accord with a need, there has been developed methods of imparting a desired luster pigment appearance to substrates having a vitreous surface.
The application methods are economical and practical. The resultant products produced by the methods have the desired pleasing appearance with no disadvantages. Disclosure of Invention Luster pigment is applied to a vitreous surface in a manner whereby the pigment is fixed to the surface without adversely affecting its appearance.
The vitreous surface has a vitreous body or the vitreous surface overlies substrates made of dissimilar materials. Plate glass inherently has a vitreous surface. A metal having a vitreous enamel surface, a ceramic having a vitreous glaze surface and glass, enameled metals and glazed ceramics having vitreous overglazes are examples of substrates with vitreous surfaces used in the method. The method comprises applying a surface coating of an inorganic based luster pigment to the vitreous surface and thereafter heating the surface to a temperature and a time sufficient to fix the pigment to the surface.
The invention relates to methods of applying luster pigments to a vitreous surface. The steps in the methods as well as the vitreous surface materials are described in detail in the following paragraphs. It will be appreciated that the described methods are useful to the individual craftsman and hobbyist as well as to industrial plants producing mass quantities of products for consumer use. Thus, the individual craftsman will use the invention in producing small ceramic wares such as vases having a very decorative and pleasing appearance.
The industrial plants will utilize the invention in producing consumer items such as bath tubs, pedestal sinks, plate glass, etc. Several different substrates having a vitreous surface are used in the method of this invention.
The substrates can be metallic or ceramic in nature and include cast iron, steel, aluminum, copper, silver, gold, porcelain and glass. Generally, the substrate is a formed or machined object such as a bath tub, vase, chinaware, window glass or some other structural object. The vitreous surface is a vitreous enamel, vitreous glaze, or vitreous overglaze. Vitreous enamels, glazes and overglazes are well known and commercially available. Norton, Addison-Wesley, , 2nd Edition, include general formulations as well as specific enamels, glazes and overglazes.
All are usable in this invention. In the case of glass, the substrate and the vitreous surface are the same.
The luster pigments used in the method of this invention are inorganic based because of their temperature stability at the temperatures encountered. They have a temperature stability to deformation of at least about degrees Fahrenheit degrees Centigrade. The pigments are inorganic platelet-like particles with a surface coating of at least one metal oxide layer.
The pigments are actually transparent inorganic platelets having a coating of a metal oxide on each of the broad faces of the platelet. The optical contribution is made by the metal oxide layers. Thus, each pigment particle behaves like two metal oxide platelets held together by the particle substrate.
The particles typically have a length of from about 1 micron to about microns, a width of from about l micron to about microns and a thickness of from about 0. Platelet-like particles include mica and glass. Metal oxides used as the coatings include titanium dioxide, ferric oxide, zinc oxide, zirconium oxide, nickel oxide, cobalt oxide and chromium oxide.
Mica flakes coated with the titanium dioxide, ferric oxide, or a mixture thereof are preferred because of their ready availability. The mica based pigments with a titanium dioxide surface coating are stable to about degrees Fahrenheit degrees Centigrade. The mica based pigments with a ferric oxide surface coating are stable to about degrees Fahrenheit degrees Centigrade. The later pigments are especially useful on glass in that they fix at a relatively lower temperature and are more intense.
The glass based pigments with a titanium dioxide surface coating are stable to about degrees Fahrenheit degrees Centigrade and while less stable than the mica based pigments, have more sparkle. Additionally, the glass platelet-like particles of the pigment can be colored with a metal oxide such as the cobalt oxide to enhance the luster effect.
The luster pigments used herein can be stabilized with a top layer of tin dioxide and cerium dioxide as suggested in U. However, the stabilization is not necessary and is less preferred in the method described herein because of an added cost without an appreciably noticeable benefit. Initially, the luster pigments are applied to the vitreous surface in an effective amount to give the desired appearance. The amount of pigment applied is not critical. Typically, about one gram of pigment per square foot 0.
If excess luster pigment on the finished product after firing is to be avoided, the pigment is applied in a controlled amount, e. The thinner coats have excellent luster quality at the reflective angle and good transparency at the transmission angles with good gloss. The thicker coats give a matt appearance. Excessive pigment application is tolerated in that any excess which is not fixed to the vitreous surface as further discussed below is simply washed away to leave a surface with the desired pleasing appearance.
In the method herein, the pigments are applied as a powder by dusting or electrostatic spraying onto the vitreous surface, or they are applied as a liquid by first dispersing in a liquid carrier such as water or an organic solvent.
The pigment dispersed in a liquid is sprayed, brushed or rolled directly onto the vitreous surface. In the case of application to a vitreous overglaze, the pigment can be dusted or brush-applied onto the overglaze. Alternatively, and more preferably, the overglaze is in the form of a decorative screen print or decal composed of an unfused first layer of frit and a luster pigment layer which is applied to a substrate such that the luster pigment layer is on the surface.
The vitreous surface itself on which the luster pigments are applied is a fused solid, unfused solid, or in certain instances as described below is still in the form of a dry or wet unfused vitreous enamel, glaze or overglaze. The same pigment particle size is used for a fused vitreous surface to get the same degree of finish.
Most importantly, the luster pigments are applied as a surface coating and are applied without benefit of a flux, frit or other binder material. The substrate with its vitreous surface and surface applied luster pigment is heated to fix the pigment to the vitreous surface. For the wet vitreous coatings, the substrate is first heated to dry the coating by driving off the liquid carrier prior to the heating step to fix the pigments.
In either case, the vitreous surface is heated to a temperature and time sufficient to fix the luster pigment to the surface. The temperature needed is dependent on the vitreous surface. For a vitreous enamel, vitreous glaze, or a vitreous overglaze surface, the temperature is at least about degrees Fahrenheit 82 degrees Centigrade , preferably about degrees Fahrenheit degrees Centigrade to about degrees Fahrenheit degrees Centigrade above the softening point of the vitreous surface.
For a glass surface, the temperature is at least about degrees Fahrenheit 93 degrees Centigrade , preferably about degrees Fahrenheit 93 degrees Centigrade to about degrees Fahrenheit degrees Centigrade below the softening point of the glass. Generally, an at least about three minutes time span is needed at the elevated temperatures to fix the pigments to the vitreous surface.
In general, the greater the fixing temperature difference above the softening point, the lesser the fixing time needed and the thicker the luster coat. For a metal substrate with a vitreous enamel coating, the softening point of the coating is about degrees Fahrenheit degrees Centigrade to about degrees Fahrenheit degrees Centigrade. For a ceramic substrate with a vitreous glaze, the softening point of the coating is about degrees Fahrenheit degrees Centigrade to about degrees Fahrenheit degrees Centigrade.
For glass, the softening point is about degrees Fahrenheit degrees Centigrade to about degrees Fahrenheit degrees Centigrade. Any luster pigment fixing temperature for a glass substrate is preferably below its softening point to avoid glass deformation.
For an unfused vitreous overglaze, the temperature needed to fuse the overglaze is also sufficient to fix the luster pigment to its surface, i. The softening point or fusing point of the particular vitreous surface is readily determined using published data or is experimentally determined in a routine fashion.
Ferro Enamel. The Company's segments include Performance Coatings metal and ceramic coatings , Performance. Frequently Asked Questions. Acrylic enamel Natura range Exterior varnish Natura range Hydroalcoholic dye.
As peculiar as some of the pieces themselves, the language of ceramics is vast and draws from a global dictionary. Peruse our A-Z to find out about some of the terms you might discover in our incredible galleries. Ceramic objects are often identified by their marks. Marks like the Chelsea anchor or the crossed-swords of Meissen are well known and were often pirated , while the significance of others is uncertain.
This invention relates to methods of applying inorganic based luster pigments to a surface. More particularly, the invention relates to a method of applying the luster pigments to a vitreous surface in a manner wherein the luster pigment is fixed thereto without causing an adverse appearance effect. Background Art Luster pigments have a unique appearance. They have a pearlescent appearance which is pleasing to the eye. They are described in U. Patent Nos. The pigments are recommended for use in many formulations and have found wide acceptance in automotive paints, printing inks, plastic bottles, cosmetics and simulated pearls.
White ceramic grinding balls, 13mm x 1kg, Milling Media for ball mill. Product description. Product details. Shipping Weight: 2. Composition metallic grinding media like carbon steel, forged steel, stainless steel or chrome steel grinding balls are best for some applications, while others require non metallic media made of alumina, ceramics, glass, silicon carbide, zirconium oxide. FOX Alumina Balls are the answer when you can't use steel in your ball mills and our Alumina grinding balls are precisely engineered, down to the nanometer. Ball milling and grinding media include high alumina ceramic grinding media ball, high chrome steel grinding media ball, produced and designed for milling and the grinding of bulk powder or granular materials into finer powder forms. Alumina grinding media for the industrial grinding: Wet grinding, Dry grinding, Ultra fine grinding, Alumina mill linings. Industrie Bitossi has always played a major role in the grinding of ceramic body, glaze and minerals, thus excelling in the innovation and tecnology adopted for the development of grinding charges which. Alumina Ceramic Lined Cylpebs are desired for high density, regular shape and also superior milling functionality.
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Overglaze Pens. The medium, or vehicle, used to mix with powdered overglaze colors china paint is greatly dependent on the individual artist's preference and style. View over 25 Carl Martin Hansen artworks sold at auction to research and compare prices.
This is a divisional of copending application Ser. This invention relates to lead-free glass enamels and glazes. More particularly, this invention relates to a method of decorating or coating glass structures, such as automotive glass, glass spandrels, appliance glassware and other glass objects. Lead containing glazes and enamels for glass substrates are well-known in the ceramic art. A glaze is typically thought of as a clear coating material, whereas an enamel is a glaze which contains a pigment or other particles in suspension. Such glazes and enamels are generally applied to glass surfaces in the form of a paste, the paste containing finely ground particles of glassy material, commonly called "frit," and a vehicle. After application of the glaze or enamel to the glass surface by silk screening or other techniques, the glass is fired to volatilize the vehicle, fuse the frit and bond the glaze or enamel to the glass surface. The use of lead oxide as a frit ingredient serves to lower the melting point of the frit. Recent efforts have been made at retaining the low melt temperature of these glazes and enamels but with the removal of the lead oxide.
ASTM's paint and related coating standards are instrumental in specifying and evaluating the physical and chemical properties of various paints and coatings that are applied to certain bulk materials to improve their surface properties. Guides are also provided for the proper methods of applying these coatings, which also include enamels, varnishes, electroplatings, pigments, and solvents. These paint and related coating standards help paint manufacturers and end-users in the appropriate testing and application procedures for the coating of their concern. Additive Manufacturing Standards. Cement Standards and Concrete Standards.
There are hundreds of organic and inorganic lead compounds , including oxides, carbonates, sulfates, chromates, silicates, and acetates. Most of these are manufactured from high-purity corroding lead. Litharge , or lead monoxide PbO , is one of the most important of all metal compounds. Containing roughly 93 percent lead and 7 percent oxygen by weight, it is manufactured by the oxidation of metallic lead in a variety of processes, each resulting in a distinctive variation in physical properties. Hence, it is available in many particle sizes and in two crystal forms. The largest single use of litharge, sometimes blended with red lead and other additives, is as a paste material for storage batteries. In addition, the inner portion of the common lightbulb is made of leaded glass. Litharge is employed in the manufacture of enamels and in the production of frits, which are fluxes used to reduce melting temperatures in glass production.
Ceramic glaze is an impervious layer or coating of a vitreous substance which has been fused to a ceramic body through firing. Glaze can serve to color, decorate or waterproof an item. It also gives a tougher surface.
EP0644860A1 - Luster pigment application methods - Google Patents
Fabrication welding and Enamaling classes. Enameling Techniques for Beginners Firescale.
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Overglaze Pens. Copper glazes should not be used. Note on the cup interior how the red overglaze enamel has turned black in one small area, due most likely to post-depositional factors. Clean the glass thoroughly of any oils or glass separator that remains on the surface.
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Alumina Balls. Widely applied in ceramic, cement, paint, pigment, chemical, pharmacy, coating and mining industries. Application: This is a grinding media used in ball mills, pot mills, vibrating mills and other fine grinding plants. It has advantages of high hardness, high bulk density and anti-corrosion, with the smashing efficiency and scuff-resistance much better than that of common ball-stone or natural cobblestone.